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Cognitivist Learning ( HMLT 5203). By Bundhun Amit Varma. Objectives. Define What is a cognitivism ? Recall 3 major theories in cognitivism Recall the 9 internal learning process involved in Instructional Design Review 8 Cognitive Instructional principles in training design

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objectives
Objectives
  • Define What is a cognitivism?
  • Recall 3 major theories in cognitivism
  • Recall the 9 internal learning process involved in Instructional Design
  • Review 8 Cognitive Instructional principles in training design
  • Name 4 cognitivism principles in online learning
what is cognitivism
What is cognitivism?
  • Answers how learning takes place inside the brain
  • Explains the Information processing approach
piaget s cognitive development
Piaget's Cognitive Development
  • Learning process is iterative
  • 3 cognitive process
john anderson s act r theory
John Anderson's ACT-R theory

Adaptive Control of Thought—Rational theory

john anderson s act r theory contd
John Anderson's ACT-R theory (contd)

Three stages of transformation

schema theory
Schema theory
  • provides an account to the knowledge abstract structures .
  • emphasizes the fact that information retained in memory is influenced by previous knowledge.
  • facilitate both encoding and retrieval
  • Three processes of schema acquisition and modification
    • Accretion - information is retained in a schema
    • Tuning - existing schema become consistent with experience
    • Reconstructing - replace schema to replace or incorporate old schema
instructional design and cognitivism
Instructional Design and Cognitivism
  • Instruction consists of a set of events external to the learner designed to support the internal processes of learning.

(Gagne, Briggs, & Wager, 1988)

Events

  • Nine events of instruction - Robert Gagné
cognitive instructional principles
Cognitive Instructional Principles
  • Content
    • Use different types of contents
      • Picture, charts , video, text, graphics, color, sound and animation
    • Break contents into chunks
cognitive instructional principles in training design
Cognitive Instructional Principles in Training Design
  • Situated learning
    • Teach knowledge and skills in context
    • Show the use of knowledge and skill in real life situation
cognitive instructional principles in training design1
Cognitive Instructional Principles in Training Design
  • Modeling and explaining
    • Explain related process through models and key principles
cognitive instructional principles in training design2
Cognitive Instructional Principles in Training Design
  • Coaching and Feedbacks
    • Provide feedback on performance, hints
    • Personalised attention

Hints

cognitive instructional principles in training design3
Cognitive Instructional Principles in Training Design
  • Scaffolding and fading
    • Help the learner when needed
    • Move towards learner autonomy
cognitive instructional principles in training design4
Cognitive Instructional Principles in Training Design
  • Articulation and Reflection
    • Learner’s reasoning, problem solving
    • Analyze own performance
cognitive instructional principles in training design5
Cognitive Instructional Principles in Training Design
  • Exploration
    • try different strategies to solve problem
    • observe the effect of strategies
    • Eliminate misconception

Which strategy do I use now??

cognitive instructional principles in training design6
Cognitive Instructional Principles in Training Design
  • Sequence
    • proceed from simple to complex
    • Teach the underlying principle first, then fine-tune the application of that principle to specific performance contexts

Simple

Complex

cognitive principles in online learning
Cognitive Principles in online learning
  • Content
    • Important Information should be place
      • in centre of screen
      • read from left to right
    • Highlight to focus learner’s Attention
    • Must match cognitive level of learner
    • Learner must be provided with the relevance of lesson

Wow! This is useful to me and I can understand it

cognitive principles in online learning1
Cognitive Principles in online learning
  • Retrieval of existing information
    • Use of advance organizer
    • Provide conceptual models
    • Use pre instructional questions or prerequisite test

In the previous lesson , we learnt ... ??

cognitive principles in online learning2
Cognitive Principles in online learning
  • Chunk information
    • to prevent overload in working memory
    • Five to nine items on screen
cognitive principles in online learning3
Cognitive Principles in online learning
  • Motivation
  • Can I do this task?
  • Why I am doing this task?
  • How can I do this task ?
cognitive principles in online learning4
Cognitive Principles in online learning
  • Can I do the task?
    • Self efficacy
cognitive principles in online learning5
Cognitive Principles in online learning
  • Can I do the task?
    • Locus of control
cognitive principles in online learning6
Cognitive Principles in online learning
  • Can I do the task?
    • Attributions
cognitive principles in online learning7
Cognitive Principles in online learning
  • Why I am doing this task?
    • Goal orientation
    • Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
cognitive principles in online learning8
Cognitive Principles in online learning
  • How can I do this task?
    • Self Regulation
      • Plan, organise, self –instruct, self evaluate
      • Time management
      • Learn and Seek help from Peers and instructors
references
References
  • Miltiadou, M. & Savenye, W. C. (2003). Applying social cognitive constructs of motivation to enhance student success in online distance education - Educational Technology Review, 2003. [On-line] Available at https://www.aace.org/pubs/etr/issue4/miltiadou2.pdf
  • Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. [On-line] Available at http://carbon.ucdenver.edu/~bwilson/training.html
  • Anderson, T. , & Elloumi, F. (2004).Theory and Practice of online learning. . [On-line] Available at http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/
  • Hanley M. (2012, February 26)E-learning Curve Blog at Edublogs. Retrieved at http://elearningcurve.edublogs.org/category/cognitivism/page/2/
  • Anderson, J. R. (1982). Acquisition of cognitive skill. Psychological Review, 98 (4), p. 369-406.
  • Anderson, J. R. (1983). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Anderson, J. R. (1985). Cognitive psychology and its implications. 2nd Ed. New York: Freeman.
  • Anderson, J.R. (1996). ACT: A simple theory of complex cognition. American Psychologist, 51 (4), 355-365.
  • Atkinson, R. L., & Shriffrin, R. M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K. W. Spence & J. T. Spence, (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory, Vol. 2. New York: Academic.
  • Drisoll, M. P.( 2000). Psychology of learning for instruction. 2nd. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Piaget, J. (1970). Genetic epistemology. (E. Duckworth, Trans.). New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Piaget, J. (1985). The equilibration of cognitive structures. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Rumelhart, D.E., & Norman, D. A. (1981). Analogical processes in learning. In J. R. Anderson, (Ed.), Cognitive skills and their acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Shank, R. C., & Abelson, R. (1977). Scripts, plans, goals and understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Elbarum.
  • Winn, W., & Snyder, D. (1996). Cognitive Perspectives in Psychology. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 112-142). New York: Macmillan.
references pictures
References - pictures
  • http://elearningcurve.edublogs.org/category/cognitivism/page/2/
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_ocr_pre_2011/brain_mind/memoryrev2.shtml
  • http://etec51264b2010cip.pbworks.com/w/page/30354214/Conceptual%20Overview%20of%20Cognitive%20Theories
  • http://www.instructionaldesignexpert.com/addie.html
  • http://ellerbruch.nmu.edu/classes/cs255w03/cs255students/teabbott/p4/page1.html
  • http://liphelonglurnerdok.wordpress.com/2012/02/10/terrific-t6-talks-teaching-clinical-reasoning/
  • http://perfectlygoodhearts.blogspot.com/2010/08/pass-or-fail.html
  • http://thefrontlinegamer.blogspot.com/2012/02/sunday-sermon-locus-of-control.html
  • http://disjointedthinking.jeffhughes.ca/2011/05/the-divine-debasement/
  • http://www.histproject.no/node/389