Contraceptive • one or more actions, devices, or medications followed in order to deliberately prevent or reduce the likelihood of pregnancy or childbirth.
Contraceptives • Hormonal: Hormonal contraception may act in one or more ways to prevent pregnancy. It may cause ovulation to cease, preventing the possibility of fertilization; it may thicken the woman’s cervical mucus, making penetration of the uterus by sperm more difficult; or it may alter and thin the endometrium (of uterus) so that a fertilized egg has difficulty implanting. • Advantages: good birth control, if used correctly • Disadvantages: do not prevent STD’s
Contraceptives: hormonal • Oral: pill, daily • Non-surgical devices: patch, Nuva-ring (3 weeks on, 1 week off) • Surgical devices: (implants: under skin or in uterus-years) • injections: Lunelle (monthly), Depo Provera (3 months)
Contraceptives • Barrier: prevent pregnancy by physically preventing sperm from entering the uterus through the cervix.
Contraceptives: barrier • Condom: male, over penis • Cervical cap: over cervix (need to be fitted for size) • Diaphragm: blocks cervix (need to be fitted for size) • All need to be used with spermicide • Condoms can reduce the risk of transmitting an STD
Contraceptives • IUD (intra-uterine device): In the United States, there are two types of intrauterine contraceptive available: the copper Paragard (prevents zygote implantation) and the hormonal Mirena.