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ccTLD Best Practices. Michuki Mwangi AfriNIC5 - INET/AfTLD Meeting, Balaclava, Mauritius 30th Nov 2006. Agenda. ccTLD Establishment Policy Development Registry Automation Stability and Redundancy Security Consideration. ccTLD Establishment. Considerations. Stakeholder participation

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cctld best practices

ccTLD Best Practices

Michuki Mwangi

AfriNIC5 - INET/AfTLD Meeting, Balaclava, Mauritius

30th Nov 2006

agenda
Agenda
  • ccTLD Establishment
  • Policy Development
  • Registry Automation
  • Stability and Redundancy
  • Security Consideration
considerations
Considerations
  • Stakeholder participation
    • Involvement of Private sector
    • Academia
    • Civil Society
    • Legal fraternity
  • Government participation
    • Government support
considerations cont d
Considerations …(cont’d)
  • Domain Registry Model
    • Open or Closed
    • Registry/Registrar etc
  • Sustainability & Commercial Model
    • Cost of registration
    • CAPEX
    • OPEX
bottom up process
Bottom up process
  • Open Public forums
  • Mailing lists
  • Interactive media
  • Registry/Board proposals
registry software
Registry Software
  • Identifying the appropriate Registry Software
    • Guided by Registry model and policies
  • Avoid re-inventing the wheel
    • Saves on time and development costs
  • Online System
    • Online Registrations, Transfers etc
  • Whois System
monitoring statistics
Monitoring & Statistics
  • Its important to monitor Registry Services
    • Ensures more uptime on services
  • Open Source applications available for monitoring
    • E.g Nagios, MRTG, webalizer, cflowd, etc
  • Statistics enables projection and planning for growth
selection of slave dns servers
Selection of Slave DNS Servers
  • RFC 2182 (BCP16) provides guidelines on selection of Secondary (slave) Servers.
    • Consider geographic placement
    • At least 2 Slave Servers and a master
    • This helps spread name resolution load
    • Improves efficiency with servers close to resolvers
    • Avoid NAT
finding suitable slave servers
Finding Suitable Slave Servers
  • Swap slave servers with other ccTLDs in the region (Common practice).
  • AfTLD, ISOC can help find suitable hosts and organizations to host Slave servers.
  • Consider Anycast hosting for slave servers www.pch.net
hardware and software
Hardware and Software
  • Scalability is Key
  • Provide sufficient memory, processor and disk space.
  • DNS Software should be fast and capable of handling load (multiple queries per second)
internet connection
Internet Connection
  • Ensure upstream provider must be multi-homed
  • Interconnect at the local/national IXP
  • Registry should have redundant links to upstream provider
  • Provider Independent (PI) IP address Space and ASN to enable for effective multi-homing
best practice
Best Practice
  • Implement routing security features
  • Operating system hardening
  • Disable Recursion
  • Have a Stealth Server
  • Run secure applications
  • Run TSIG for secondary zone transfers
references
References
  • http://ws.edu.isoc.org/workshops/2006/PacNOG2/track1/day3/draft-wenzel-cctld-bcp-02.txt
  • http://www.pch.net/resources/papers/anycast-services/
  • www.isc.org
  • ftp://ftp.rfc-editor.org/in-notes/rfc2182.txt
  • www.aftld.org
thank you

Thank you

www.aftld.org