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Chapter 2 Exploring the Americas. “If you have men who will come if they know there is a good road, I don’t want them. I want men who will come if there is no road at all.” David Livingston. Section 1: A Changing World. Marco……POLO!!!.

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chapter 2 exploring the americas
Chapter 2 Exploring the Americas
  • “If you have men who will come if they know there is a good road, I don’t want them. I want men who will come if there is no road at all.” David Livingston
marco polo
  • Marco Polo, an Italian explorer returned to Venice, Italy from China in 1295.
  • He wrote a book describing the China (The far east) as a magnificent place filled with riches and resources.
  • 200 years later, Kings from Europe were allowing explorers to look for these resources and valuable materials (gold).
a growing interest
A growing interest
  • Most Europeans had no idea the Western hemisphere existed
  • Goods from the Far East began appearing in European markets and people started becoming interested in distant land.
growth of trade
Growth of Trade
  • European Merchants could make a fortune selling goods from Asia
  • They craved goods such as Cinnamon,pepper, and other spices.
  • Ports were set up along the Mediterranean Sea. Merchants would travel by camel from Asia, then take a ship to Europe. This was very time consuming.
growth of ideas
Growth of Ideas
  • Rich merchants used their money to study the past (Ancient Greece, Rome)
  • Italians learned about philosophies, poetry, and science
  • This period of intellectual and artistic creativity became known as the Renaissance.It convinced many Europeans to pursue new goals and ideas, paving the way for an age of exploration and discovery.
the birth of nations
The Birth of Nations
  • For many years, Europe was a group of small states. Political power was divided locally.
  • However, by the 1400’s Strong Monarchs, or king or a queen, came to power in Spain, Portugal, England, and France.
  • These kings and queens set up laws, courts, taxes, and armies
  • They also looked for ways to make their countries stronger and wealthier.
technology s impact
Technology’s Impact
  • Advances in Technology, or the use of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, opened the way for European voyages.
  • The Printing Press was invented in 1450. This device made book making faster.
  • More people now could have access to books. Marco Polo’s book, Travels, was now more widely read throughout Europe.
better maps
Better Maps
  • Most early maps were inaccurate, drawn from scratch
  • New inventions such as the Astrolabe which was an instrument that measured the position of stars, helped determine latitude while at sea.
  • Europeans improved the compass, which was a Chinese invention that was passed to the Arabs, then to the Europeans.
better ships
Better Ships
  • New ship designs allowed for longer ocean voyages. The Caravel was a ship that could sail faster and carry more cargo than other ships
  • It could also sail in shallow water, which allowed sailors to explore inlets and beach their ships to make repairs.
  • Europeans could now sail to Africa with ease
african kingdoms ghana
African Kingdoms -Ghana
  • 300-1100A.D. Located in West Africa
  • Got rich in trade. Ghana was close to salt mines and gold mines. They taxed foreign Kings for trade.
  • Was conquered by the Almoravids from North Africa. They controlled Ghana for 10 years, then Ghana’s power slowly declined.
african kingdoms mali
African Kingdoms - Mali
  • From 1200 on Mali revived the powerful trade routes in North Africa
  • They expanded their territory into what was formerly Ghana
  • Their greatest king Mansa Musa ruled from 1307-1332. He was described at the time as the most powerful, richest, most fortunate, and most feared by his enemies.
mali ctd
Mali Ctd
  • Musa was Muslim. West Africans picked up the religion from traders passing through
  • He made a Pilgrimage (a journey to a holy place) to Mecca,and brought 12,000 slaves and a huge military escort.
  • He returned and built Muslim houses of worship called Mosques in Timbuktu. Timbuktu became a center for Islamic art and learning.
african kingdoms songhai
African Kingdoms - Songhai
  • The Songhai people lived around the Niger River and rose up against the Mali people. They captured Timbuktu in 1469.
  • It became a rich trading center, but was captured by Morocco a North African nation armed with guns and cannons in the late 1500’s.
section 2 early exploration

Section 2: Early Exploration

“The Church says the Earth is flat, but I know that it is round, for I have seen the shadow on the moon, and I have more faith in a shadow than in the church” Ferdinand Magellan

section 2 early exploration17
Section 2: Early Exploration
  • Portugal led the way in exploring the world
  • Portugal lacked a Mediterranean port, so it could not be part of trade between Asia and Europe. They had to find a better way.
  • Portugal decided to start expeditions down the West coast of Africa.
henry the navigator
Henry the Navigator
  • Prince Henry of Portugal laid the groundwork for all expedition.
  • New Portuguese ships sailed farther South than anyone had before.
  • They sailed to the Azores Islands and the Canary Islands. From there they got favorable winds that took them down the African Coast
bartholomeu dias
Bartholomeu Dias
  • Portuguese moved south along Africa's west coast. They set up trading posts for gold and bought African slaves as well. They called this area the Gold Coast.
  • The King of Portugal decided if he could send ships around Africa, then they could trade directly with India and China.
  • The King sent Dias to explore the Southern tip of Africa. After fighting through a storm, Dias reached the “Cape of Good Hope”
vasco da gama
Vasco da Gama
  • In July 1497, after much preparation Vasco da Gama set out with 4 ships from Portugal.
  • He reached the port of Calicut in India completed the sea route to Asia.
christopher columbus
Christopher Columbus
  • Columbus believed the world was round, like many other Europeans.
  • However, he thought Asia was 2400 miles from Europe, or about 2 months by ship.
  • He greatly underestimated the distance
the viking voyages
The Viking Voyages
  • The Vikings reached North America in early 800’s and 900’s. In about 1000 A.D. Viking Leaf Erikson got lost on the way to Greenland and landed in Newfoundland (Canada).
  • He established a small settlement but it did not last
  • Accounts of America were lost in Viking Legends.
back to columbus
Back to Columbus
  • King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain watched the success of neighbor Portugal and wanted in on the riches of the Asian Trade.
  • They also had just kicked out the Muslims in Spain, and wanted to establish Christianity around the world.
  • The King and Queen agreed to finance Columbus's journey. However, he had to promise to share any wealth with the King and Queen.
columbus s first voyage
Columbus's First Voyage
  • He had two small ships, Nina, Pinta, and a larger ship, the Santa Maria. He had about 90 sailors. He left on August 3, 1492
  • After a month with no land in sight, his crew thought about a mutiny.
  • Columbus convinced his crew to continue to the “Indies”.
  • Weeks later he saw seagulls and weeds floating, both signs of life. He discovered America on October 12, 1492, although he did not know it yet.
columbus s first voyage ctd
Columbus’s first Voyage Ctd
  • He said the inhabitants were, “All of good stature and a very handsome people.”
  • He noted that the natives often touched the Europeans to make sure they were “Flesh and bones themselves.”
  • Columbus returned to Spain triumphant in 1493. He returned for three more voyages in 1493, 1498, and 1502 to establish Spanish settlements.
spain portugal rivalry
Spain/Portugal Rivalry
  • To keep the peace between the two nations, the pope established the line of demarcation in 1493 This was an imaginary boundary in the Atlantic Ocean between the North Pole and the South Pole.
  • Spain received the rights to land west of the line, and Portugal east of it.
  • In 1494, the two countries signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, which moved the line West so Portugal could have some land in America.
Dashed line is line of demarcation
  • Bold line is treaty of Tordesallas
vasco nunez de balboa
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
  • Worked as a governor of a Spanish town in modern day Panama.
  • Formed a team to voyage through the jungle
  • Discovered a large body of water. He claimed the pacific ocean for Spain.
ferdinand magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
  • Spain still wanted to find a sea route to Asia.
  • In 1519 they commissioned Magellan to lead an expedition to circumnavigate , or sail around the world.
  • When looking for a passage around South America, one of his ships turned around and sailed back to Spain.
magellan s journey
Magellan’s Journey
  • Magellan found a straight on Nov 20th 1520.
  • The voyage across the Pacific lasted four months.
  • The crew ran out of food and had to eat sawdust, rats, and leather of the rigging to survive.
  • Magellan was killed in the Philippines when he was caught up in a local war trying to spread Christianity to the native people.
  • 18 of 250 crew members survived the journey back to Spain
section 3 spain in america

Section 3: Spain in America

“We Spaniards know a sickness only gold can cure” Hernando Cortez

spain in america
Spain in America
  • Spanish Conquistadors (or explorers) explored the Americas in return for 1/5 of the gold went to the King and Queen.
  • Hernando Cortes landed in Mexico in 1519. He came with 500 soldiers, horses, and a few cannons. He soon learned about the Aztec empire and their capital, Tenochtitlan.
cortes plan
Cortes’ Plan
  • The Aztec had conquered many cities during their history and forced them to pay tribute (gold, crops, clothing) to the Aztecs
  • When Cortes passed through, he used the hostility of these cities toward the Aztecs against them.
  • When Cortes arrived in Tenochtitlan, he was welcomed by the natives. However, while in the city him and his men captured Montezuma,the leader of the Aztecs and killed him, along with other Aztec nobles.
aztecs fall
Aztecs Fall
  • The Aztecs had enough and drove Cortes out of the city.
  • Cortes waited for more troops to arrive. In 1521, him and his army attacked and destroyed Tenochtitlan.
  • With the capital destroyed, Spain seized control of the region
pizzarro conquers peru
Pizzarro Conquers Peru
  • In 1530 the conquistador Francisco Pizarro sailed down the Pacific coast of South America with 180 soldiers
  • In 1532 Pizarro captured Atahualpa, the leader of the Incas, and trapped the Incas.
  • The 200 Spanish killed 10,000 unarmed, unorganized men of the Incas with guns, swords, and horses.
  • Atahualpa was killed months after capture. Without leadership, the Incas fell quickly.
why spain succeeded
Why Spain Succeeded
  • Weapons-guns, cannons, horses
  • Many Native Americans hated the Aztecs
  • Disease- Small Pox and other fatal diseases broke out in America. More than half of the population died. They died in heaps of people and in mass. There was nothing that could be done
spain in north america
Spain in North America
  • Juan Ponce de Leon was the first Spaniard in North America. He searched for the legendary “fountain of youth” in Florida. He failed but set up a settlement and a fort at St. Augustine, Florida
  • Other explorers searched for gold and riches in North America but failed.
important terms
Important Terms
  • Viceroy – The Kings Representative in the Americas
  • Pueblos – towns
  • Missions – Religious communities that usually included a small town
  • Presidio – A fort built by a mission
social classes
Social Classes
  • This is a rank of people with the most privilege to the ones with no respect in the community
  • 1. Peninsulars – Spaniards who owned land
  • 2. Creoles – People of Spanish and Native American descent
  • 3. Native Americans
  • 4. African Americans (slaves)
native americans
Native Americans
  • In the 1500’s the Spanish government granted encomienda, or the right demand taxes or labor from Native Americans.
  • This turned Native Americans into slaves.
  • A Spanish priest named Bartolome de las Cosas condemned the cruel treatment of the Native Americans.
  • He convinced the Spanish govt to pass a law that forbid the use of Native Americans as slaved. It did not always work, but it corrected the worse cases.
the slave trade
The Slave Trade
  • Now that Spanish Americans couldn’t use Native Americans for labor, they imported slaves
  • Slaves worked the Plantations, which was a large estate run by the owner or a manager and farmed by workers living on it.
the colombian exchange
The Colombian Exchange
  • The Colombian Exchange refers to the exchange of plants, animals, and disease that altered life in both America and Europe.
  • Europeans brought over horses, cattle, pigs, and chickens.
  • The Americas provided Europeans with crops such as corn, tomatoes, beans, squash, potatoes, and chocolate, which made the European diet more nutritious and tasty.
the colombian exchange ctd
The Colombian Exchange Ctd…
  • Europeans brought many diseases to the Americas, including small pox, influenza (Flu), measles, and other diseases
  • When Columbus landed on Hispaniola in 1492, there were more than 3 million Native Americans living there.
  • 50 years later, only about 500 remained.
section 4 exploring north america

Section 4: Exploring North America

“These natives are a very good people; for when they saw that I would not remain, they supposed that I was afraid of their bows; and , taking their arrows, we broke them in pieces and threw them into the fire.” Henry Hudson

section 4 exploring north america48
Section 4 Exploring North America
  • Mercantilism the theory that a nations power was based on its wealth.
  • Countries in Europe competed for overseas territory that could produce wealth.
  • The Treaty of Tordesillas divided the Americas between Spain and Portugal, but other countries such as England, France, and the Netherlands ignored the treaty.
english expeditions
English Expeditions
  • In 1497 England sent John Cabot to look for a Northern route to Asia. He landed on Newfoundland.
jacques cartier france
Jacques Cartier (France)
  • This French explorer sailed up the St. Lawrence River looking for the Pacific Ocean. He got as far as the peak “Mont Royal” which later became the Canadian City of Montreal.
henry hudson netherlands
Henry Hudson (Netherlands)
  • Discovered a river in 1609 (Hudson River)
  • He was looking for a passage to India, instead got as far as Albany.
  • He returned a year later, hired by England
  • Discovered a huge bay, now named Hudson Bay.