Who governs the following
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Cross-border Internet commerce Ocean floor magnesium nodes Sea of Tranquility Microsoft’s copyright Windows XP in China Mineral deposits in Antarctica. Greenhouse gases emissions Geo-synchronous satellites International airline routes Dolphins killed in tuna nets.

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Who governs the following l.jpg

Cross-border Internet commerce

Ocean floor magnesium nodes

Sea of Tranquility

Microsoft’s copyright Windows XP in China

Mineral deposits in Antarctica

Greenhouse gases emissions

Geo-synchronous satellites

International airline routes

Dolphins killed in tuna nets

Who “governs” the following:



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International “Soft Law”

Management Linkages

No Policy

Country

B

Country

A

Trade/Investment Linkages

NGOs


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Regime

  • “...a set of implicit or explicit principles, rules, norms, and decision-making procedures around which actor expectations converge in a given area of international relations.” (Krasner, 1983)


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Regimes and Behavior

  • Persistent patterns of behavior

  • Set of governing arrangements for behavior

  • Institutions structuralize, legitimize, enforce, administrate behavior


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Characteristics of Regimes

  • Scope: range of business and economic activity

  • Purpose: objectives of the regime

  • Organizational form: institutional form, membership, secretariat, charter, etc.

  • Decision and allocation modes: treaty, membership voting, etc.

  • Strength: effectiveness, enforcement, monitoring, reporting, etc.



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Foundations for Regimes

  • Self interest

  • Culture

  • Power

  • Sovereignty

  • Interdependence

  • Knowledge

  • Crisis



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Functional Regimes: Military - Security

  • Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty

  • NATO

  • Geneva Convention

  • Warsaw Pact (defunct)


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Regional/Associative Regimes

  • European Union

  • NAFTA

  • ASEAN

  • OECD


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Law of the Sea Negotiations

  • Early:

    • Outside territorial waters, anything goes

      • Piracy

      • Pollution

      • Over-fishing

      • Access and shipping lines

      • Exploration and extraction of resources (oil, manganese, etc.)


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Law of the Sea Negotiations

  • Post-1967:

    • U.N. proclamation rendering international waters as “a heritage of mankind … transnational public good”

      • No Piracy

      • Limits on Pollution

      • Fishing Agreements

      • Rules on access and shipping lines

      • Equity in natural resources (oil, manganese, etc.)


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Functional Regimes: Environmental

  • Montreal Protocol for Greenhouse Gases

  • Law of the Sea Treaty

  • Moon Treaty

  • Antarctica Treaty

  • UN-based Consumer Protection Guidelines


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Functional Regimes: Economic

  • Air transport

  • Ocean shipping

  • Telecommunications

  • GATT / WTO

  • IMF

  • Gold standard (defunct)


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Future Regimes

  • Internet commerce?

  • Animal rights?

  • Human rights?


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Non-Governmental Organizations

  • Common NGOs:

    • International Olympic Committee

    • Greenpeace

    • United Auto Workers Union

    • World Council of Churches

    • Save the Dolphins Organization

    • National Rifle Association

    • Amnesty International