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Cross-border Internet commerce Ocean floor magnesium nodes Sea of Tranquility Microsoft’s copyright Windows XP in China Mineral deposits in Antarctica. Greenhouse gases emissions Geo-synchronous satellites International airline routes Dolphins killed in tuna nets.

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who governs the following
Cross-border Internet commerce

Ocean floor magnesium nodes

Sea of Tranquility

Microsoft’s copyright Windows XP in China

Mineral deposits in Antarctica

Greenhouse gases emissions

Geo-synchronous satellites

International airline routes

Dolphins killed in tuna nets

Who “governs” the following:
international soft law
International “Soft Law”

Management Linkages

No Policy

Country

B

Country

A

Trade/Investment Linkages

NGOs

regime
Regime
  • “...a set of implicit or explicit principles, rules, norms, and decision-making procedures around which actor expectations converge in a given area of international relations.” (Krasner, 1983)
regimes and behavior
Regimes and Behavior
  • Persistent patterns of behavior
  • Set of governing arrangements for behavior
  • Institutions structuralize, legitimize, enforce, administrate behavior
characteristics of regimes
Characteristics of Regimes
  • Scope: range of business and economic activity
  • Purpose: objectives of the regime
  • Organizational form: institutional form, membership, secretariat, charter, etc.
  • Decision and allocation modes: treaty, membership voting, etc.
  • Strength: effectiveness, enforcement, monitoring, reporting, etc.
foundations for regimes
Foundations for Regimes
  • Self interest
  • Culture
  • Power
  • Sovereignty
  • Interdependence
  • Knowledge
  • Crisis
functional regimes military security
Functional Regimes: Military - Security
  • Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty
  • NATO
  • Geneva Convention
  • Warsaw Pact (defunct)
regional associative regimes
Regional/Associative Regimes
  • European Union
  • NAFTA
  • ASEAN
  • OECD
law of the sea negotiations
Law of the Sea Negotiations
  • Early:
    • Outside territorial waters, anything goes
      • Piracy
      • Pollution
      • Over-fishing
      • Access and shipping lines
      • Exploration and extraction of resources (oil, manganese, etc.)
law of the sea negotiations13
Law of the Sea Negotiations
  • Post-1967:
    • U.N. proclamation rendering international waters as “a heritage of mankind … transnational public good”
      • No Piracy
      • Limits on Pollution
      • Fishing Agreements
      • Rules on access and shipping lines
      • Equity in natural resources (oil, manganese, etc.)
functional regimes environmental
Functional Regimes: Environmental
  • Montreal Protocol for Greenhouse Gases
  • Law of the Sea Treaty
  • Moon Treaty
  • Antarctica Treaty
  • UN-based Consumer Protection Guidelines
functional regimes economic
Functional Regimes: Economic
  • Air transport
  • Ocean shipping
  • Telecommunications
  • GATT / WTO
  • IMF
  • Gold standard (defunct)
future regimes
Future Regimes
  • Internet commerce?
  • Animal rights?
  • Human rights?
non governmental organizations
Non-Governmental Organizations
  • Common NGOs:
    • International Olympic Committee
    • Greenpeace
    • United Auto Workers Union
    • World Council of Churches
    • Save the Dolphins Organization
    • National Rifle Association
    • Amnesty International