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The American Revolution. Chapter 4. Conflict in the Colonies. Chapter 3 – 5 . Britain’s Trade Laws. After the French and Indian War, Britain acquired a huge public debt. As a result of the debt, the British saw the colonist as a source of revenue ($$)

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conflict in the colonies

Conflict in the Colonies

Chapter 3 – 5

slide6
After the French and Indian War, Britain acquired a huge public debt.
  • As a result of the debt, the British saw the colonist as a source of revenue ($$)
  • Britain began taxing the colonist to pay for the war.
  • This will also contribute to distrust of Britain by the colonist.
britain s trade laws7
Britain’s Trade Laws
  • George Grenville (Britain’s finance minister) thought the colonist should pay more toward British expenses in N. America.
  • His first step toward this was to prevent the colonist from smuggling (trading illegally) goods in the colonies.
slide8
To prevent smuggling, he issued a writs of assistance. (legal documents that allowed British officers to search the home and warehouses looking for smuggled goods.).
  • The writs of assistance horrified the colonist b/c gov’t officials could come into their homes w/o warning.
slide9
Grenville’s next act to raise $$ was to impose the Sugar Act.
  • The Sugar Act lowered the tax on molasses imported by the colonist and established courts to hear smuggling cases. The British appointed their own judges instead of having juries.
  • This measure really troubled the colonist.
slide11
The colonist believed that the Britain Parliament should not have the right to tax the colonist b/c they could not vote for members of Parliament.
  • Thus, came the slogan “Taxation w/o Representation is Tyranny.”
the stamp act13
The Stamp Act
  • Parliament passed another, more disturbing law, the Stamp Act.
  • The Stamp Act placed a tax on almost all printed material in colonies (newspapers, pamphlets, wills, and playing cards).
  • This tax convinced the colonists that action needed to be taken against Britain.
slide14
The colonists argued that:
    • Parliament had interfered in colonial affairs by taxing colonist directly
    • Parliament taxed the colonist w/o their approval
protesting the stamp act16
Protesting the Stamp Act
  • Patrick Henry attempted to persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to take action against the Stamp Act.
  • Henry gave a passionate speech in which he informed the VA House of Burgesses, “To Give Me Liberty or Give me Death!”
  • Henry succeeded and the assembly stated that only the colonial gov’t had the right and power to tax its citizens.
  • Samuel Adams organized the Sons of Liberty to protest the Stamp Act.
slide17
Samuel Adams

Patrick Henry

slide18
http://www.authentichistory.com/antebellum/revolution/19130600_Give_Me_Liberty_or_Give_Me_Death-Harry_E_Humphrey.html
  • Listen to the words of Patrick Henry when he gave his famous speech in the Virginia House of Burgesses.
slide19
The Sons of Liberty protested the Stamp Act by protesting the British stamps. They marched throughout the colony destroying houses belonging to Britain officials .
  • People began to boycott (refuse to buy) European goods and many Britain merchants begged Parliament to repeal the law.
slide21
Colonist formed the Stamp Act Congress where 9 of the 13 colonies were represented.
  • The congress told the king that he did not have the power to tax the colonies, only the colonial gov’t had that right.
  • Parliament repealed the Stamp Act as a result.
slide22
While the colonist celebrated their Stamp Act victory, Parliament passed another far reaching act, the Declaratory Act.
  • The Declaratory Act said that Parliament had the right to tax colonist no matter what the colonial gov’t did.
new taxes24
New Taxes
  • Parliament made another attempt to raise $$ for Britain by passing the Townshend Acts.
  • The Townshend Act applied taxes to all goods imported to the colonist. (glass, paper, tea and lead) Most of these goods were not produced in the colonies.
slide25
Once again, the colonist became outraged with any taxes imposed by Parliament.
  • They felt once again that only colonial gov’t had the right to tax the colonist.
  • As a result of the Townshend Act, colonist begin boycotting British goods once again.
colonial women organize protests27
Colonial Women Organize Protests
  • Women took an active role in the protest against the Townshend Acts.
  • Women organized groups to support the boycott of British goods, sometimes calling themselves the Daughters of Liberty.
  • They urged Americans to wear homemade clothes.
trouble in boston29
Trouble in Boston
  • British officers sent word back to Britain that he feared the colonist in Boston were planning a rebellion.
  • As a result, Parliament sent 700 soldiers to the Boston Harbor.
  • The soldiers were rude and violent toward the colonist.
slide30
On March 5, 1770, a fight finally erupted between the British soldiers and the colonist. The colonist moved throughout the streets picking up stones, sticks, shovels, and clubs to use as weapons against the soldiers.
  • The soldiers confronted the mob when they drew close.
slide31
The crowd responded by throwing stones, snowballs, oysters shells and wood at the soldiers.
  • After one of the soldiers were knocked down, the soldiers opened 7 shots on the mob; killing 5 colonist. Among the dead was the leader of the mob, Crispus Attucks. (a black male)
  • This tragic event is known as the Boston Massacre.
slide34
The colonist used the Boston Massacre to their benefit. Samuel Adams and Paul Revere begin using propaganda to get the colonist to hate the British.
  • The massacre led the colonist to boycott British goods again, but stronger.
  • As a result, Parliament repealed the Townshend Act except on tea.
slide35
Samuel Adams reorganized the Committee of Correspondence to circulate writings about grievances the colonist had against the British.
a crisis over tea37
A Crisis over Tea
  • The British East India Company had a surplus of tea; if they did not sell the excess tea, it would face ruin.
  • The British gov’t wanted to keep the East India Company opened; therefore, they passed the Tea Act.
slide38
The Tea Act gave the company the right:
    • The right to ship tea to the colonies without paying taxes on the tea.
    • The right to sell tea directly to the shopkeepers instead of the merchants.
  • This allowed the East India Company to have the cheapest tea in the colonies.
slide39
The colonist immediately boycotted British tea and denounced the British monopoly on tea.
  • 3 ships from British docked in the Boston Harbor to deliver their tea.
  • A group of men dressed as Indians boarded the ships and dumped 342 chest of tea in the Boston Harbor.
  • This event will be known as the Boston Tea Party.
intolerable acts42
Intolerable Acts
  • When King George III received news of the Boston Tea Party, he realized he was losing control of the colonies.
  • The king and Parliament vowed to punish Boston for their actions.
  • Parliament passed the Coercive Act, which the colonist called the Intolerable Act.
slide44
The Intolerable Act imposed the following punishments:
    • Closed the Boston Harbor until colonist paid for the ruined tea. (this prevented the importation of food and other supplies)
    • Prohibited town meetings (no more church)
    • Forced the Bostonians to shelter soldiers in their homes.
the revolution begins

The Revolution Begins

Chapter 4 – 1

the continental congress48
The Continental Congress
  • 54 men from all the colonist except Georgia met in Philadelphia to establish a political body to represent the colonist interest.
  • This group was known as the First Continental Congress.
slide50
Major political leaders from all the colonies attended this meeting.
  • Those in attendance included:
    • Samuel Adams and his cousin, John Adams
    • John Jay
    • Richard Henry Lee
    • Patrick Henry
    • George Washington
slide51
Achievements of the First Continental Congress included:
    • They voted to repeal the13 acts Parliament passed
    • Voted to boycott all British goods and trade
    • Passed a resolution to form militias (citizen soldiers)
the first battles53
The First Battles
  • Colonists suspected if fighting broke out, it would be in the New England area. They boasted if fighting took place, they would be ready to fight in a minute’s notice. Thus, they became known as the minutemen.
  • They were right! Britain sent 3,000 to the New England area.
  • The British learned that the colonists had weapons in Concord, a town NW of Boston. As a result, 700 troops were to move from Boston to Concord to destroy the weapons. They were also ordered to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock (Leaders of the Sons of Liberty)
slide54
Dr. Joseph Warren saw unusual activity among the British soldiers and informed William Dawes, Paul Revere, and Samuel Prescott.
  • They would ride on horse back warning the citizens that the British were coming to Lexington and Concord from Boston.
  • Paul Revere is the most famous of these riders due to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s poem “The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere”.
slide56
When the troops reached the center of town in Concord, a shot was fired and both the British and militia began fighting. This is known in history as the “Shot Heard Round the World”.
  • When the fighting was over 8 minutemen were dead and the British soldiers marched on.
  • When the British found where the militia’s weapons were stored, they discovered that most of it was moved.
slide57
When the British troops were returning to Boston, farmers, blacksmiths, saddle makers, and clerks hid behind trees and fired shots at the soldiers.
  • More than 200 soldiers were wounded and 73 were dead as a result.
  • The Battle of Lexington and Concord would be the first Battle of the American Revolution.
fort ticonderoga
Fort Ticonderoga
  • Ethan Allen lead a group of New Englanders known as the Green Mountain Boys on an attack of the British fort, Ticonderoga.
  • The British were caught off guard and had to surrender the fort.
  • This victory allowed the colonists to get cannons, ammunition, and other needed materials for their war effort!
battle of bunker hill
Battle of Bunker Hill
  • The militia would set up forts at Bunker Hill and Breed’s Hill, across from the Boston Harbor.
  • British soldiers marched up Bunker Hill to take control of the fort.
  • The militia had a limited supply of ammunition. William Prescott, who was the leader of the colonial forces shouted “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes”, so that they would not waste what ammunition they did have.
  • When they ran too low on gunpowder they were forced to retreat. The British would win the Battle of Bunker Hill. However, they would lose 1000 soldiers in the process.
choosing sides
Choosing Sides
  • Once colonists heard about the first battles of the war, they had to choose which side to support. The Loyalists or Patriots.
    • Loyalists were the colonist who did not support the war and wanted to remain loyal to Britain.
    • Patriots were the colonist who supported the war and wanted the colonist to have independence from Britain.
second continental congress64
Second Continental Congress
  • 3 weeks after the Battle of Lexington and Concord, the colonists formed the Second Continental Congress.
  • This time, all colonies were in attendance.
  • Famous political leaders in attendance were:
    • John and Samuel Adams
    • Patrick Henry
    • Richard Henry Lee
    • George Washington
    • Benjamin Franklin
    • John Handcock
    • Thomas Jefferson
slide65
The Second Continental Congress began to govern the colonies. They did the following:
    • Printed money
    • Set up a post office
    • Established good relations with Native Americans (attempting to sign treaties)
    • Created the Continental Army
    • Chose George Washington as leader of the army
    • Issued the Olive Branch Petition
  • Elected John Hancock as the president of the 2nd Continental Congress.
what was the olive branch petition
What was the Olive Branch Petition?
  • The Olive Branch Petition was a document sent to King George III that asked the king to protect the colonists’ rights and informed him that the colonists did not want to have a war.
  • King George III refused to even read the Olive Branch Petition.
slide68
King

George III

the colonies take the offensive70
The Colonies Take the Offensive
  • Washington led a group of militia to Canada were the British soldiers were planning to invade New York. Washington and his troops captured Montreal.
  • Benedict Arnold led a failed American attack on Quebec. Later, Arnold would help the British and become an American traitor.
declaring independence

Declaring Independence

Chapter 4 – 2

the colonies declare independence75
The Colonies Declare Independence
  • The Second Continental Congress chose a committee to draft a Declaration of Independence.
  • This committee included:
    • Thomas Jefferson (selected to write the Declaration)
    • John Adams
    • Roger Sherman
    • Robert Livingston
    • Benjamin Franklin
slide76
It took Jefferson about 2 weeks to write the Declaration of Independence.
  • Congress approved the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.
slide78
John Hancock, president of the Congress, was the first person to sign the Declaration of Independence.
  • Eventually 55 people would sign the Declaration of Independence.
the declaration of independence81
The Declaration of Independence
  • The Declaration of Independence has 4 major sections.
    • The preamble (introduction)
    • 2 sections that include the colonists’ rights and complaints against King George III
    • The conclusion which states the colonies existence of a new nation
slide82
The Declaration of Independence list 3 major freedoms of the citizens:
    • Right of life
    • Right of liberty
    • and the Pursuit of Happiness
  • The Declaration of Independence also states that if Britain did not protect the basic freedoms of the citizens, the colonies had the right to alter or abolish (to end) the British gov’t and create their own!
slide83
Abigail Adams, the wife of John Adams, sent her husband a letter that encouraged him to give women rights in the Declaration of Independence.
  • John Adams did not circulate Abigail’s letter at the meeting.
the struggle for liberty

The Struggle for Liberty

Chapter 4 – 3

the opposing sides87
The Opposing Sides
  • Patriots were the colonist who supported the war and wanted to be independent from Britain.
  • British advantages in the war:
    • Strongest navy in the world
    • Well-trained army
    • A lot of $$
    • Larger population
slide88
Colonial disadvantages in the war:
    • Lack of a regular army
    • Weak navy
    • Soldiers lacked military experience
    • Low weapons and ammunition
    • Not all Americans supported the war, they wanted to remain neutral.
slide89
Loyalist were the colonist who did not support the war and wanted to remain Britain citizens. (also known as Tories)
  • Many African Americans were Loyalist.

.

slide90
Some African Americans fought on the British side b/c Lord Dunmore, announced if they did, they would be freed at the end of the war.
  • Colonial advantages in the War:
    • Fighting on own soil
    • British hire soldiers who did not care who won the war.
    • Had George Washington
slide91
George Washington

Lord Dunmore

raising an army93
Raising an Army
  • Congress had a hard time enlisting soldiers to fight in the war. The militia they had fought for a while, but returned home to tend to their farms.
slide94
Women began fighting in the war. The most famous woman fighter was Deborah Sampson. She disguised herself as a man so she could fight. When she was wounded she treated herself so no one would know she was actually a woman.
patriot gains96
Patriot Gains
  • Washington asked Congress to enlist African Americans to fight for the Patriots.
  • The southern states did not want the African Americans to fight in the war b/c they feared the slaves would revolt against them.
  • As the need for soldiers grew, all states except SC allowed African Americans to fight in the war.
slide97
Normally during winter months, the armies did not fight. However, George Washington saw the British army in Trenton and used this as his chance to catch them off guard.
  • Washington sent 2,400 troops and surprised the British and defeated them.
  • This was the Battle of Trenton.
slide99
After this defeat, the British retreated to Saratoga.
  • At Saratoga, the British faced major trouble.
    • The British expected back up from the west and south to arrive, yet it never did.
    • The colonist would surround him and trap him from the retreating.
    • Having no food and wounded soldiers, the British surrendered.
  • The Battle of Saratoga was the turning point in the war.
gaining allies101
Gaining Allies
  • The colonist victory at Saratoga marked a turning point in the war.
  • Benjamin Franklin had been in France for a year and had convinced the French to secretly give the colonist financial aid.
  • With the victory at Saratoga, the French openly supported the colonist, declared war on Britain, sent troops, $$ and aid to America.
a difficult winter103
A Difficult Winter
  • For the winter, Washington and his troops setup camp at Valley Forge.
  • The troops endured a trouble winter. The suffered the following things:
    • Lack of decent food
    • Lack of clothing
    • Lack of shelter
    • Troops left w/o permission
    • Officers resigned w/o warning.
slide105
Yet, somehow the troops had survived the harsh winter, and things begin to improve gradually.
  • The troops built huts and gather supplies from the country side.
  • George Washington’s wife, Martha, even volunteered. She made clothes and cared for the troops.
slide106
A French noble, Marquis de Lafayette, heard of the war and join the colonist in their pursuit for freedom. He was one of the few men who survived Valley Forge. He was a trusted aid of George Washington.
  • Marquis de Lafayette convinced France to grant assistance to the colonist towards independence.
  • Even though the colonist had received $$ from foreign countries, they still did not have enough money to finance the war.
slide108
Spain also joined the war to assist the colonists.
  • Bernardo de Galvez, the Spanish governor of LA, gathered a small army of soldiers, French Americans, colonists, and Native Americans.
  • Together they made took control of all the British forts from LA to FL.
life on the home front111
Life on the Home Front
  • With hundreds of men away fighting, the women had to take over their duties.
  • Betsy Ross is said to have made the first American flag for George Washington.
  • Abigail Adams urged her husband, John Adams, to include women when declaring independence from Britain.
glory at sea114
Glory at Sea
  • Britain used its powerful navel to patrol American waterways, keeping Patriot and allies’ ships from entering or leaving the harbor.
  • This blockage prevented supplies or reinforcement from reaching the Americans.
slide115
To break the British naval blockage, the Congress ordered the construction of 13 American warships.
  • The Americans destroyed 4 of their own ships to keep them out of the British hands.
  • The other ships were captured by the British and destroyed.
slide116
American privateers captured more British ships at sea than the American navy.
  • Privateers were privately own ships equipped w/ weapons.
  • One of the most daring American naval officer was John Paul Jones.
  • Jones sailed near the cost of Britain to attack the British in his ship, Bonhomme Richard. He would fight w/ them for more than 3 hrs.
  • In the end, Jones made the British surrender. Shortly, his own ship sank. However, this victory made him a naval hero.
independence

Independence!

Chapter 4 – 4

victory at yorktown121
Victory at Yorktown
  • Finally, the French arrived in America and entered the harbor of Rhode Island.
  • The promised French aid had arrived; however, the British fleet trapped them in the Newport Harbor.
slide122
The British were running very low supplies and many of their soldiers were sick. As a result, General Charles Cornwallis surrendered the British army to George Washington.
  • The Patriots had won the Battle of Yorktown, ending the American Revolution, winning the war!!!!
the treaty of paris125
The Treaty of Paris
  • The Americans sent John Jay, John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin to Paris to work out a treaty to official end the war..
  • It took about 6 months to draft the treaty.
slide126
The Treaty of Paris was signed on Sept. 3, 1783. By this time, Britain had made peace w/ France, Spain, and the Netherlands.
  • Terms of the Treaty of Paris:
    • Britain would recognize the United States as an independent nation
    • Gave the US lands from the Atlantic Ocean, west to the Mississippi River, north to Canada, and south to Spanish FL.
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