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Soviet Propaganda. The Bolshevik Era (1917-1921). Lenin emphasized the use of “agitprop”. This was a combination of propaganda and agitation in order to win the support of both the intellectuals and average worker Struggle of Ideology, battle from within

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the bolshevik era 1917 1921
The Bolshevik Era (1917-1921)
  • Lenin emphasized the use of “agitprop”. This was a combination of propaganda and agitation in order to win the support of both the intellectuals and average worker
  • Struggle of Ideology, battle from within
  • Over 3,600 posters were created during this time
  • As The Civil War intensified in 1919, the Bolsheviks set up a new Literary-Publishing Department to coordinate propaganda efforts.
    • Dimitri Moor and Viktor Deni were the main cartoonists of the era.
  • Russian Telegraph Agency (ROSTA)
    • Stenciled posters that summarized the news.
    • Displayed in shop windows across Moscow.
  • Era ended when Bolsheviks defeated the Whites.
slide3

Cossack - Who are you with, them or us?, 1920

Never buy in a Private Shop - when you can buy in a cooperative,

Universal War Training Education is the Key to Victory. The worker's hand is powerful with a rifle a, c.1919

Rosta Window #216 (No Bureaucracy) - 8 panels, 1921

Only the Red Army can bring peace to your farms and villages. Peasants, join your workers' and peasants’, 1920

the new economic policy 1921 1927
The New Economic Policy (1921-1927)
  • Small farms and businesses flourished, while the State kept control of heavy industry, transport and foreign trade.
  • “Roaring Twenties” of Russia.
  • Mayakovsky and Rodchenko known as "advertising constructors" for State-run businesses. They developed an ‘agitational’ style of advertising in which shrill slogans and aggressive compositions were used with strong diagonals and color
    • became the peacetime equivalent of the revolutionary poster.
  • State poster production was headed by Yakov Ruklevsky
  • Other Famous Artists
    • Stenberg brothers, Georgii and Vladimir
    • Nikolai Prusakov
    • Mikhail Dlugach who created more than 500 posters
slide5

Sailors- Buy in the Cooperatives, 1925

The Horror of Future War, 1924

No Knowledge=No Bread. Knowledge Lies in Books. Books are on the Cooperatives., 1925

Be ready to defend October, 1927

the first and second five year plans 1928 1937
The First and Second Five Year Plans (1928-1937)
  • First Five Year plan
    • Upon assuming complete control in 1928, Stalin immediately put an end to the New Economic Policy and embarked on a new course to full communism with the Five Year Plan. Intended to turn the USSR rapidly into a powerful industrial nation. Stalin demanded an increase in production and wide scale construction
    • Created strictly controlled propaganda
    • Posters appeared everywhere, in factories, farms and all public spaces, in vast quantities and variety
    • Messages of Propaganda: ": fulfill the plan, exceed quotas, defend the USSR”
      • Master of this message was Gustav Klutsis
      • Used mostly red and black All designed to stress the monumental and heroic aspect of the age.
      • His propaganda attacked the enemies of the State both within and without, always portraying the Soviet Union as the victor of peace and social justice
  • Second Five Year Plan
    • Beginning in 1934, Stalin embarked on a thorough purge of the Party, then the army. Anyone remotely suspected of opposition or even lack of enthusiasm was exiled to the camps or shot
    • Purges claimed the lives of many artists even Gustav Klutsis
    • Literature, art and posters of this period overwhelmingly stressed the role of the infallible Leader, Joseph Stalin.
    • Terror, drove out originality and spontaneity in not only propaganda, but in art until the death of Stalin in 1953
slide7

Greeting to those who have joined the work at the world-wide giant Dneprostroi DGES (Dnieper Hydroelectirc Dam), 1932

A Country should know its Heroes, c.1930

The Komsomol Fleet greets the great Stalin!, 1939

Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin, 1936

the great patriotic war 1939 1945
The Great Patriotic War (1939 - 1945)
  • The forces unleashed in the crisis of the Civil War were rekindled, and Soviet artists rose to the challenge.
  • The themes of Soviet propaganda shifted dramatically as the threat of the Nazis grew. Patriotic themes began to overshadow communism and class struggle.
  • Speeches and posters were populated by references to great pre-Soviet heroes.
  • Two most famous phrases, both by Moor.
    • “How have you helped the Front”
    • “Have you enrolled as a volunteer”.
slide9

Liberate them!, 1942

Liberate!, 1942

How have you Helped the Front?, 1941

A blow to the enemy. There will be a celebration even on our street., 1944

Let's give a hand of brotherly help to the inhabitants of villages and towns freed from the fascists, 1942

the cold war 1946 1984
The Cold War (1946 - 1984)
  • Return of “Social Realism” and other Utopian Views
  • Up until his death in 1953, posters focused on the glory of Stalin
  • The middle years of the Cold War depicted the Vietnam War and the great strides taken in the Space Race
  • Denounced the aims and goals of Capitalism, viewed as the main threat of communism
  • Denounced religion as a threat to the communist ideals
    • 12,000 churches closed by Krushchev in 1959
slide11

Under Lenin's banner, with Stalin's leadership - ahead toward Communism, 1948

Religious rites - Young and old, Tear these strings!, c. 1966

The Republic of the Free - The Hammer & Sickle forever forge the shield, 1966

Pledge to the Motherland and Communist Ideas, 1978

Stop U.S. Agression in Vietnam, 1974