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Smart Dust. Mohammad Rahimi CSCI599-Spring2002. Back to future!. Colonies of smart ultra small size network Interaction of advances in technology VLSI more condense silicon processing VLSI more silicon speed VLSI low power short range communication

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smart dust

Smart Dust

Mohammad Rahimi

CSCI599-Spring2002

back to future
Back to future!
  • Colonies of smart ultra small size network
  • Interaction of advances in technology
    • VLSI more condense silicon processing
    • VLSI more silicon speed
    • VLSI low power short range communication
    • MEMS Micro-Electromechanical Systems
    • Networking : Ad hoc wireless Network
    • Distributed Processing : Operating system, Database
applications
Applications
  • It is a special class of sensor network
  • Fine sensing granularity
  • Applications :
    • Forest fire warning
    • Enemy troop monitoring
    • Large scale Biology or Geology
    • Smart office spaces
    • Defense-related sensor networks
    • Inventory Control
slide7

Circulatory Net

Group of sensors inside the body

key features of these electronic particles
Key Features of these electronic particles
  • Power
    • Survive for extended amount of time
  • Computation
    • Process Sensor Data and Communicate
  • Sensors
    • To Interface to the environment
  • Communication
    • To glue the pieces of information
what is really behind the race computer science
What is really behind the race?Computer Science!
  • Ad hoc Networking
    • Dynamic Reconfigurable network
    • Scalability
  • Data Fusion
    • An efficient semantic to diffuse data in the network
    • Interpretation of multimodal sensing
  • Distributed Processing
    • Network Oriented Operating Systems
    • Data Aggregation
come back to reality cots dust
Come Back to Reality!COTS Dust
  • Commercial Off-The-Shelf Components Dust
    • To enable us the research about the algorithms and semantics
architecture
Architecture

Low Power

Communication Front End

1-Acoustic

2-RF

3-Optical

Computation Brain

1-MCU

2-FPGA

Sensors

1-Magnetometer2- Light

3-temperature

4-pressure

5-Hmidity

6-Acceleration

Power

1-Bat

2-Sollar

3-Vibration

4-Acoustic Noise

power
Power
  • Power: Lithium Battery
    • Big Problem
    • Low capacity per unit of mass and volume
    • Needs support by sleep mechanism and low power techniques
    • Not really so much innovation after Volta!
      • Solar
      • Vibration
      • Acoustic noise
      • Thermal conversion
      • Nuclear Reaction
      • Fuel Cells
computation
Computation
  • Computation: ATMEL91M404000
  • Micro Controller
    • Core and variety of different functions
      • Flash , SRAM , E2PROM
      • GPIO , ADC , PWM ,Comparator
      • Embedded serial Buses
      • Ex: Microcontrollers Atmel , Microchip, Motorola Microprocessors Intel Strong-Arms ,Motorola
  • FPGA
    • Not Traditional Style Of programming
      • Hardware Descriptive Languages (VHDL, Verilog)
    • Faster , Low Power , Reconfigurable
    • Ex: Xilix,Atmel
sensors
Sensors
  • Motion Sensing
    • Magnetometer
      • Study 3 Element of Earth Magnetic field (Compass)
    • Accelerometer
      • To measure Local vertical (tilt switch) or measure motion vectors
  • Environmental Sensing(Weather Monitoring)
    • Pressure
      • Barometer
    • Temperature
    • Light
    • Humidity
communication
Communication
  • Acoustic
  • RF radio
  • Optical
    • Passive
    • Active
acoustic communication
Acoustic Communication
  • Power Hungry
  • High Background Noise
  • Large Size (proportional to harmonics of sound)
  • Fast Attenuation Curve
  • Low communication baud rate
  • Low power receiver
    • Good for event driven wake up systems
rf communication
RF Communication
  • New low power techniques
    • Not robust (No fancy Spread Spectrum)
  • ISM Band
  • For practical frequencies large ANT Size(~λ)
    • It may have a tail!!
  • Only one RF front end
    • MCU acts as base band controller
      • CRC,Encoding(Manchester),DC Balance,Header
rf communication19
RF Communication

Train Sequence

Flag Byte

Number OF Byte

DATA

CRC

  • No Addressing
optical communication
Optical Communication
  • Active
    • High power laser source
    • Transmission of modulated laser beam
  • Passive
    • MEMS Corner Cube Reflector
    • Emit modulated ambient light
    • Extremely low power
optical vs rf
Optical Vs. RF
  • Both mature technology
  • Both Electromagnetic waves
  • light is quiet short wavelength compared to RF
    • Potential of smaller sizes
  • light techniques are extremely directional
    • Peer-Peer
  • RF techniques can be more omni directional
  • Directionality Brings the problem of alignment
future work
Future Work
  • Design of multi hop network
  • Autonomous network configuration
  • Data Fusion
  • Network Decision making
  • Large Scale Distributed Processing
links
Links
  • http://www.heise.de/tp/english/inhalt/co/5269/1.html
  • http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pister/SmartDust/
  • http://www.thestandard.com/article/0,1902,27573,00.html
  • http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,44101,00.html
  • http://www-bsac.eecs.berkeley.edu/~warneke/SmartDust/
  • http://www.ce.berkeley.edu/~glaser/Current%20Civil%20Applications.ppt
  • http://madmax.me.berkeley.edu/%7Eshadr/overview.html