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Sleep and Dream states. Consciousness What is consciousness? Consciousness is what goes on between your ears when you are awake? DREAMING is a state of consciousness Altered states of consciousness Sleep, drugs, meditation, hypnosis?. Sleep and wakefulness.

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sleep and dream states
Sleep and Dream states
  • Consciousness
  • What is consciousness?
    • Consciousness is what goes on between your ears when you are awake?
    • DREAMING is a state of consciousness
    • Altered states of consciousness
    • Sleep, drugs, meditation, hypnosis?
sleep and wakefulness
Sleep and wakefulness
  • Seem different but have a lot in common
    • In sleep
    • we may ‘talk’
    • we may ‘walk’
    • we have memories
    • we can even plan things!
    • Sleep patterns vary - average = 7/8 hours per night
  • Disruption of sleep leads to fatigue
  • What goes on in the brain of a sleeper?
  • Brain activity can be recorded by an EEG
  • Electroencephalogram
sleep and dream states6
Sleep and dream states
  • Every 24 hours we sleep
  • we spend 30% of our lives asleep
  • sleep is an active NOT a passive behaviour
  • Dement and Kleitman (1950s)
  • the five stages of sleep
  • National Initiatives
    • UfI
    • NGFL
  • Sector Developments
    • Connectivity
    • Local initiatives
    • Inclusivity and widening participation
the brain and its states
The brain and its states...
  • Waking EEGs -
  • Desynchronised brain waves
  • not all chanting together
the stages of sleep
The stages of sleep
  • Before sleep
  • just as we fall asleep
  • synchronised alpha waves
  • heart rate slows, temperature falls
  • muscle tension reduces
the stages of sleep10
The stages of sleep
  • Stage 1 sleep - alpha waves reduced
  • less desynchronised brain activity
  • Stage 2 sleep - synchronised brain activity
  • larger and slower waves
  • bursts of sharp ‘spikes’
  • (sleep spindles)
the stages of sleep11
The stages of sleep
  • Stage 3 sleep - slow delta waves
  • less sleep spindles
  • heart and breathing rate continue to fall
  • Stage 4 sleep - only delta waves
  • arousal threshold high (people are hard to wake up)
  • 4 stages of Slow Wave Sleep
  • all synchronised slow wave activity
rem sleep
REM sleep
  • REM sleep - after about 90 minutes EEG shows SHIFT into fast desynchronised brain activity
  • heart rate increases
  • skeletal muscles relaxed (paralysis)
  • Rapid Eye Movements occur (REM)
rem sleep13
REM sleep
  • REM sleep - 15 minutes in REM sleep then back through stage 2 3 and 4
  • this cycle repeats every 90 minutes
  • 5 or 6 cycles per night
  • towards morning more REM sleep
  • we dream in REM sleep, thus dream more in early morning
what is sleep for
What is sleep FOR?
  • The evolutionary theory
  • All species sleep, thus sleep MUST have a valuable function (survival of the species)
  • Do animals need sleep?
  • Rats deprived of sleep die after 21 days
  • Jouvet - cats & the flower pot technique
  • (These animals may have died of stress)
human sleep deprivation
Human sleep deprivation?
  • REM sleep seems important:
  • The Randy Gardner study
  • volunteers who are gradually deprived of sleep
  • (sleep reduced from 8 hours to 2 hours)
  • pack REM sleep into the time they CAN sleep
do we only dream in rem sleep
Do we only DREAM in REM sleep?
  • How can we find out?
  • IDEAS on a post card please!!!!!
dement and kleitman
Dement and Kleitman
  • Developed a rigorous and objective test
  • of the
  • relationship between REM sleep and dreaming
dement and kleitman18
Dement and Kleitman
  • Three ways to collect data
  • First DV
  • Dream recall during REM and NREM sleep
  • they woke people up and asked them if they had dreamed
dement and kleitman19
Dement and Kleitman
  • Three ways to collect data
  • 2nd DV
  • Subjective estimate of the duration of dreams CORRELATED to the duration of REM before awakened
  • they asked people to say how long their dreams had lasted
dement and kleitman20
Dement and Kleitman
  • Three ways to collect data
  • 3rd DV- patterns of eye movements were related to the reported dream content
  • to test whether the movement represented specific expression of the visual dream experience
dement and kleitman21
Dement and Kleitman
  • Third DV - the criteria
  • FOUR eye movement patterns
  • 1 mainly vertical
  • 2 mainly horizontal
  • 3 vertical & horizontal
  • 4 little or none
dement and kleitman22
Dement and Kleitman
  • Have we all got that?
  • 3 ways to collect the data (DVs)
  • self report of dreaming
  • self report of length of dream - correlated to length of EEG REM
  • correlation of eye movement to reported dream content
dement and kleitman23
Dement and Kleitman
  • 9 participants (7 male & 2 female)
  • only 5 studied intensively
  • method - a lab experiment
  • The procedure - Ps asked to refrain from alcohol & caffeine
  • Report at bed time to sleep lab
dement and kleitman24
Dement and Kleitman
  • Ps go to bed in quiet room
  • Electrodes stuck next to eyes to record eye movements
  • Electrodes stuck to scalp to record brain waves (EEG)
  • All attached by single wire to EEG (lead wire at top of bed)
dement and kleitman25
Dement and Kleitman
  • Now - Ps awakened through the night to test their dream recall
  • 21 awakenings in first 2 hrs of sleep
  • 29 awakenings in 2nd 2 hrs of sleep
  • 28 awakenings in 3rd 2 hrs of sleep
  • 22 awakenings in 4th 2 hrs of sleep
dement and kleitman26
Dement and Kleitman
  • They were woken by a bell placed next to the bed
  • when woken the Ps spoke into a recording device near the bed
  • FIRST - they said whether they had been dreaming
  • NEXT they said what they were dreaming about (if they could)
dement and kleitman27
Dement and Kleitman
  • No communication between experimenter and sleeper until after they told of their dream content
  • in case the experimenter ‘suggested the content’
dement and kleitman28
Dement and Kleitman
  • They were NOT told whether they had been woken in REM sleep or in NREM sleep
  • Woken in BOTH REM and NREM
dement and kleitman29
Dement and Kleitman
  • FINDINGS of 9 participants
  • dream reports (DV1)
  • 191 awakenings
  • 152 dream reports
  • 39 no dream reports
dement and kleitman30
Dement and Kleitman
  • FINDINGS of 9 participants
  • Dream reports (DV1)
  • NREM sleep
  • 160 awakenings
  • 11 dream reports
  • 149 no dream reports
dement and kleitman31
Dement and Kleitman
  • FINDINGS of 9 participants
  • dream reports (DV1)
  • HIGH incidence of dream recall after REM
  • LOW incidence of dream recall after NREM
dement and kleitman32
Dement and Kleitman
  • FINDINGS of 9 participants
  • Length of dream correlated to length of REM (DV2)
  • How was this done??
  • Ps awakened randomly after 5 or 15 minutes of REM and asked to guess how long theyhad been dreaming
  • (5 or 15 minutes)
dement and kleitman33
Dement and Kleitman
  • FINDINGS of 9 participants
  • 5 minutes REM SLEEP
  • 45 reports were right
  • 6 reports were wrong
  • 15 minutes REM sleep
  • 47 reports were right
  • 13 reports were wrong
dement and kleitman34
Dement and Kleitman
  • FINDINGS of 9 participants
  • length of dream correlated to length of REM (DV2)
  • most Ps guessed accurately except one P who could only remember the ends of dreams
dement and kleitman35
Dement and Kleitman
  • FINDINGS of 9 participants
  • relationship between the type of eye movement to CONTENT of dream
  • (DV3)
  • Ps woken when TYPE of eye movement was regular (vertical etc)
  • 21 wakings - reports always looking at people or objects near to them

3 out of 35 awakenings were for vertical movements

  • Standing at the bottom of cliff hoisting things up
  • Climbing a ladder
  • Playing basketball

One horizontal awakening

Throwing tomatoes


10 little or no eye movement

2 occasions driving car looking into distance then look left at car pulling out or man waving

A quick glance left observed just before waking

dement and kleitman39
Dement and Kleitman
  • SUMMARY & conclusions
  • regularly occurring REMs every night
  • Most Ps recalled dreaming in REM
  • lack of dream recall + light brain waves suggest NO dreaming in NREM
  • Objective measurement of dreaming MAY be achieved by recording REMS while people sleep
dement and kleitman40
Dement and Kleitman
  • Evaluation
  • REM sleep is important
  • the brain needs to sleep to organise itself
  • evidence
  • babies sleep longer than old people
  • REM is longer after complex tasks
dement and kleitman questions
Dement and Kleitman - QUESTIONS
  • Does it matter that only 2 Ps were female?
  • Why were Ps asked to refrain from alcohol / caffeine?
  • Why was it important that the Ps did not know whether they were in REM or NREM?
  • Does the size of the sample matter?
dement and kleitman questions42
Dement and Kleitman - QUESTIONS
  • Why might the sleep patterns be different when the Ps sleep in their own beds?
  • Why might some of the Ps have recalled dreams when they were woken in NREM
  • To whom can we generalise the findings?
  • Was the study ethical?
dement and kleitman questions43
Dement and Kleitman - QUESTIONS
  • What was the IV?
  • What were the three DVs?
  • What is the MAIN disadvantage of correlational analysis?
  • Have D & K established that dreaming ONLY occurs in REM sleep?
dement and kleitman44
Dement and Kleitman
  • YOU MUST read this study up
  • Also -
  • try to read a chapter on SLEEP RESEARCH in GROSS or CARDWELL
dement and kleitman45
Dement and Kleitman
  • Try recalling your own dreams
  • Keep a dream diary
  • Do you dream more after you have been studying hard?
  • The end