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Research Tips . “Gaming Topics” Betty McNeal [email protected] 702-895-4119. Today’s Agenda. Provide brief overview of gaming Discuss print sources of gaming information Discuss electronic sources of information Show research value of various types of information.

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Research Tips

“Gaming Topics”

Betty McNeal

[email protected]

702-895-4119


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Today’s Agenda

  • Provide brief overview of gaming

  • Discuss print sources of gaming information

  • Discuss electronic sources of information

  • Show research value of various types of information


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History of Gaming

  • Old as mankind, every country & culture

  • If not legalized, it goes underground

  • Various motivations: Gain, Greed, Excitement, Fantasy, Escape

  • Mathematical odds always against players

  • Operators are guaranteed to have the advantage

  • Extremes cause personal & societal problems


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Gaming History Starters

  • Subject search in Library Catalog

  • General and specific subjects and time periods

  • People of Chance: Gambling in American Society from Jamestown to Law Vegas, by Findlay

  • High rollers:A History of Gambling in America. Video. History Channel.

  • The numbers game in New York City 1960-1969: A social & political history, by Liddick


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More Gaming History

  • http://www.lvstriphistory.com

  • Doctoral dissertation: David Schwartz

    • Suburban Xanadu: The casino resort on the Las Vegas Strip, 1945-1978. UCLA, 2000.

  • Gaming Research & Review Journal. See article with USA Timeline. (V. 3, Issue 2, p. 65)

  • The Development of the Law of Gambling: 1776-1976. U. S. Dept of Justice. Call no: J1.25/G14/776-976.


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Research Value—Gaming History

  • Perspective on the present

  • Explains Nevada’s development

  • Insight into human psychology

  • Part of the literature search



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Gaming Boundaries

  • Limited stakes gaming

    • Colorado

  • Loss limits

    • Riverboats

  • Restricted gaming

    • Supermarkets, bars, drug stores

  • Restricted areas

    • Deadwood. Cripple Creek, Central City, Black Hawk. Atlantic City. Detroit.

  • Class I, II, III

    • I Social games. II Bingo, pull tabs, cards. III Tables and slots


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Mathematics

Psychology

Business/Econ

Government

Religion

Marketing

Leisure/recreation

Tourism

Law

Sociology

Technology

Medicine/Addiction

Interdisciplinary Nature of Gaming Research


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Economic Impact of Gaming

  • Construction

  • Employment

  • Wages

  • State revenue

  • Use of revenue to upgrade community

  • Infrastructure upgrades


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Social Impacts of Gaming

  • Crime, drugs, prostitution

  • Underworld influence

  • Gambling addiction

  • Underage gambling

  • Family values

  • Capitalizing on human weakness

  • Insolvency & bankruptcy



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Research Value—Gaming Knowledge

  • Familiar with concepts, jargon

  • Multiply options for gaming topics

  • Speed up literature search

  • Adds motivation & enthusiasm


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Print

Books

Monographs

Periodicals

Non-print

Online catalogs

Online databases

Internet

CD-ROM

E-books

E-periodicals

Audio, video

Research Materials by Format


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Research Materials by Type

  • Bibliography

  • Treatises

  • Journals

  • Magazines/Newspapers

  • Reference works

  • Web Sites

  • Dissertations & Theses

  • Government publications


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Bibliography

  • Casino Gaming in the United States: A Research Guide. 401 pages.

    • Thomas A. Mirkovich & Allison A. Cowgill

    • Call no: Z7164/G35/M57/1977

    • Annotated bibliography, 800+ entries

    • Social, economic, moral, legal aspects

    • Covers 1985-1994


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UNLV Library

http://library.nevada.edu

Keyword: Casinos, Gambling, etc.

Author:

Thompson, William N.

Library of Congress

http://www.loc.gov

Keyword: Casinos, Gambling, etc.

Instant Bibliographies


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Research Value--Bibliography

  • Literature search

  • Control of literature resources

  • Verify author, title, date, publisher


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Books

  • Textbooks

  • Scholarly works

  • University press publications

  • Trade publications


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Basic Gaming Books

  • --Introduction to the Casino Entertainment Industry. Eade & Eade. Call no: HV6711/E23/1997

  • --The Gaming Industry: Introduction & Perspectives. Call No. HV6711/G35/1996

  • --Casino Operations Management. Kilby & Fox. Call no: HV6711/K55/1995

  • --Overview of the Gaming Industry. International Gaming Institute. HV9999/G252/)94/1996


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Research Value—Books

  • Compiled using wide variety of sources

  • Strict review, editing, fact checking by publisher

  • Advantage of extensive time to write, evaluate

  • May have extensive bibliographies, helpful notes


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Journals

  • Academic origin

  • Peer reviewed

  • Studies, critiques, analyses

  • Full text, online

  • Gaming Research & Review Journal

  • Journal of Gambling Studies

  • Gaming Law Review


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Interdisciplinary Journals

  • Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research

  • The Annals of the American Academy of Political & Social Science

  • Psychological Reports

  • Journal of Youth & Adolescence

  • British Journal of Addiction

  • Journal of Social Issues

  • National Tax Journal


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Journal Sources

  • Print journals or combo print/online

  • Online databases (long list in university library)

    • Academic Search Elite

    • Emerald Library http://www.emeraldinsight.com )

    • Wiley Interscience http://www.interscience.wiley.com

    • Psychinfo

    • PapersFirst


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Journal Alerts

  • Inquire about email newsletters from journals

  • Email Tables of Contents from publisher

  • Catchword.com Enter free no more than 5 keywords to get Tables of Contents from journals emailed to you


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Research Value--Journals

  • Zero in on narrow subject

  • Update book material

  • Add to book bibliography

  • Adhere to research methodology

  • Primary source material


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Newspapers/Magazines

  • Not scholarly

  • Can’t use to “prove” a point, but can use for facts, names and dates, informal comments

  • May mention a study or lead to a principal investigator

  • Can use if that is the best source for a particular kind of data


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Newspapers/Magazines

  • For academics, industry personnel or general reader

  • News, updates, email editions

  • Feature articles

    • Casino Journal

    • Casino Executive Reports

    • Las Vegas Review-Journal

    • Casino Wire (online)

    • Pechanga (online/Indian gaming)

    • State Capitals Newsletters (online)


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Research Value—News/Magazines

  • Current awareness

  • Online access

  • Email delivery

  • Tuned to the real world

  • May suggest new trends


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Reference Works

  • Encyclopedias, dictionaries, almanacs

  • Indexes & Abstracts—key to journal searching

  • Bibliographies

    • Gaming Business Directory

    • Encyclopedia of Gambling

    • Nevada Gaming Almanac

    • Global Gaming Almanac

    • Dan’s Poker Dictionary (online)

    • Problem Gambling Terms (online)


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Research Value—Reference Works

  • High probability of accuracy

  • Basic data, such as statistics, names and addresses, principles and outlines

  • Foundation of knowledge from which to branch out


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Web Sites

  • Anybody can publish

  • May not have author, references or proof

  • Most gaming authorities have web sites

  • Look for disclaimers

  • Verify in another source, if necessary


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Web Site Citation or Documentation

  • Refer to appropriate style manual. APA, Univ. of Chicago, MLA.

  • General bibliographic elements precede the web site

  • Date retrieved from web given


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Gaming Web Sites

  • Good choice for revenue statistics

  • All gaming commissions and boards have sites

  • Gateway to libraries, bookstores

  • Find associations, regulatory bodies, revenue charts, research institutes, conferences and expos

  • Free articles on some sites


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Research Value—Web Sites

  • Eliminate manual searching

  • Access remote catalogs

  • International coverage

  • Variety of views, opinions

  • Can contact owner

  • When last updated often included

  • Online purchase of materials if necessary


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Best Gaming Links Web Site

  • http://www.unlv.edu.centers.gaming

  • Webmaster: Dr. David G. Schwartz

  • Constantly improving, updating

  • All types of reference/information sources

  • Not much guidance as to how to use

  • May be overwhelming for new researcher

  • Brief annotations; few evaluations


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Forthcoming Web Site Guide

  • Gaming Recreation, Regulation & Research, A Guide to Information on the World Wide Web, by Betty McNeal

  • E-book

  • Gaming Web sites are discussed and evaluated

  • Distribution not decided (ebook, floppy, cd-rom, web page)



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Click “Digital Dissertations” on Find Articles & More. (UNLV Library)

Fill in basic or advance search boxes.

Citation, Abstract, 24-page preview, full text.

Dissertations & Theses


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UNLV Gaming Theses (UNLV Library)

  • “Attitude of gaming employees towards problem gambling: How it affects their learning at an awareness training”. Bybee, Lisa M.

  • “The relationship between casino drop and gaming stock performance: A multivariate analysis”. Gilbert, Mark H.

  • “Impact of casinos on residential property values: Henderson, Nevada”. Giannini, Barbara

  • “An analysis of smoking and gambling among Las Vegas visitors”. Koenen, John


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Theses—Other Universities (UNLV Library)

  • “Emergency management assessment and impacts of tropical cyclones on waterfront casinos in Biloxi, Mississippi” (Mississippi State U)

  • “Minimal treatment for concerned significant others of problem gamblers” (Univ. of Calgary)

  • “The impact of increased external competition on Nevada taxable gaming revenue” (UNR)


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Research Value—Dissertations/Theses (UNLV Library)

  • Sample format to guide new researchers

  • Insight into manageable topics

  • New problems highlighted

  • Update books & journals


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Government Publications (UNLV Library)

  • Laws, statutes, cases

  • Rules & regulations

  • Congressional & state legislative hearings

  • Commissions & Task Forces

  • Special reports

    • National Gambling Impact Study Report

    • Nevada Revised Statutes

    • S E C filings (EDGAR database)


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Research Value—Government Publications (UNLV Library)

  • Topics pertinent to citizen interest

  • Prepared by specialists and experts

  • Information not found elsewhere, e. g., testimony at hearings

  • Raw data you can manipulate yourself


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Gaming and the Law (UNLV Library)

  • Federal Law

  • State Law

  • Tribal Law

    • Indian Gaming Regulatory Act

  • Regulations to supplement, administer and enforce the law


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Need for Gaming Laws (UNLV Library)

  • Cash industry

  • Strict cash handling procedures

  • Fees and taxes properly assessed

  • Insure honesty of games

  • Inspire public confidence


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Legal Citation Form (UNLV Library)

  • Uniform System of Citation [Blue Book, or Harvard Blue Book]

  • Examples:

    • NRS §463.1405 (2)

    • 1995 Nev. Rev. Stat. 497

    • NGC Reg. 16.405©

    • Nevada Gaming Commission v. Desert Palace, Inc. 101 Nev. 173, 647 P. 2d 477 (1985)


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Legal Sources on Internet (UNLV Library)

  • Findlaw

  • Megalaw

  • Westlaw (fee based)

  • Lexis (fee based)

  • Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe Free Access through UNLV catalog


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More Internet Legal Sources (UNLV Library)

  • International Association of Gaming Attorneys

  • Gaming Practice Group (Michigan)

  • Nevada Attorney General, Gaming Division

  • Martindale & Hubbell (lawyer directory)

  • Lionel Sawyer & Collins

  • U. S. Code/State Codes

  • Court Cases

  • Law Journals

  • I. Nelson Rose , “Gaming and the Law”


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Research Value—Laws, Legal Topics (UNLV Library)

  • Authority, force

  • Exact citations for documentation and ease of location

  • Show interaction of industry and government

  • Public welfare & common good


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Nevada Gaming Laws (UNLV Library)

  • http://gaming.state.nv.us

  • Blueprint for other states

  • Licensing & Control Ch. 463

    • Powers, duties of regulators

    • Licensing & licensing fees

    • Licensing corporations

    • Casino entertainment tax


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Nevada Style (UNLV Library)

New Jersey

Louisiana (1)

Indian Reservations ( but not all)

Colorado (limited)

South Dakota (limited)

Detroit

Riverboats

Iowa

Indiana

Missouri

Mississippi

Louisiana

Illinois

Legalization--Other Venues


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Gaming Regulations (UNLV Library)

  • Branch of administrative law

  • Supplement and support enabling legislation

  • Day to day operations management

  • Minute details and procedures


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Gaming Regulations (UNLV Library)

  • Available on the Internet

  • Implement gaming laws through administrative codes

  • Procedures for money handling and other details

  • May specify make up of boards & commissions


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Research Value—Gaming Regulations (UNLV Library)

  • Compare casino compliance plans with state requirements

  • Show the law at work in the world

  • Can be cited as authoritative


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Gaming Regulators Associations (UNLV Library)

  • Exchange ideas, explore common interests

  • Respond to scholars and authorities

  • NAGRA (N. American Gaming Regulator’s Association)

  • IAGR (International Gaming Regulators Association

  • GREF (Gaming Regulators European Forum)

  • North Amer. Pari-Mutuel Regulators Assn.


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Nevada Gaming Regulations (UNLV Library)

  • http://gaming.state.nv.us

  • Sample topics

    • Application procedures & forms

    • Accounting procedures

    • Patron disputes

    • Disciplinary proceedings


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Nevada Black Book (UNLV Library)

  • Online photos, names, descriptions.

  • http://gaming.state.nv.us/loep_main.htm

  • Bowers, Michael W., and A. Constandina Titus. “Nevada’s Black Book: The Constitutionality of Exclusion Lists in Casino Gaming Regulation”. Whittier Law Review 9 (Spring 1987): 313-330.


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Show Me the Money (UNLV Library)

  • Nevada MICS

  • Nevada Gaming Audit Manual

  • “What to Expect from an Audit”

  • Gaming Audit Group (Institute of Internal Auditors)

  • “Auditing the Casino Floor” , by Craig Robinson


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Gaming License Applications (UNLV Library)

  • Owners, officers, boards, key employees

  • Nevada Forms 7, 7A

  • Multi-Jurisdictional Personal History Disclosure Form


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Gaming Commissions & Boards (UNLV Library)

  • Power to regulate and control

  • Investigate, audit, license, enforce, discipline

  • Web sites have duties, statutes, regulations, revenues, reports

  • Public agendas and open meetings


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Commissions & Boards (UNLV Library)

  • Nevada Gaming Commission

  • Nevada Gaming Control Board

  • New Jersey Casino Control Commission

  • National Indian Gaming Commission

  • Iowa Racing and Gaming Commission

  • Gambling Board for Great Britain

  • National Gambling Board of South Africa


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State Gaming Boards--Examples (UNLV Library)

  • Colorado Gaming Board

    • http://www.gaming.state.co.us

  • Illinois Gaming Board

    • http://www.igb.state.il.us

  • Mississippi Gaming Commission

    • http://www.mcg.state.ms.us


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Gaming Associations (UNLV Library)

  • Competitors unite to promote industry

  • Web sites contain statistics, brief facts

  • Possible source for interviews

  • Nevada Resort Association

  • NASPL (North American Association of State & Provincial Lotteries)

  • National Indian Gaming Association

  • British Casino Association


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Due Diligence (UNLV Library)

  • Applies to more than gaming

  • Gaming board/commission scrutiny of applicants for gaming licenses

  • Personal, educational, legal, financial. Past and present

  • Determine “suitability”

  • Access to records: family, driving, military, educational, criminal, employment, business, taxes, liens, credit, assets here and abroad, etc.


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Casino Due Diligence (UNLV Library)

  • Investigate properties for possible acquisition

  • Investigate vendors and suppliers they wish to do business with

  • Write a due diligence plan to follow

  • Irregularities of business associates reflect on casino and may affect licensing


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Due Diligence Sources (UNLV Library)

  • Investigator’s Guide (GAO, pdf file)

  • U. S. Dept. of Justice (Freedom of Information Act)

  • National Fraud Center

  • Bankruptcy (PACER/Public Access to Court Electronic Records)

  • Vital Records/Corporation Records

  • NCIC (National Crime Information Center)


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Research Value—Due Diligence (UNLV Library)

  • Cost studies of due diligence operations

  • Identify problems with obtaining information from foreign nations

  • Develop shortcuts and streamlined procedures

  • Show relation of due diligence to the Freedom of Information Act


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Indian Gaming (UNLV Library)

  • Tribal Sovereignty

  • Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. U. S. Code, Title 25, Chapter 29, Section 2701

  • National Indian Gaming Commission

  • Tribal-state compacts

  • Foxwoods=most profitable in U. S.

  • Bureau of Indian Affairs (current conflict)


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Indian Gaming (UNLV Library)

  • California compact

    • http://www.pechanga.net/documents/tribal.htm

  • Good faith negotiation

  • Some tribes have casinos without contracts

  • State of Texas closed casino

  • Management outsourcing (management contracts)


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Research Issues—Indian Gaming (UNLV Library)

  • Inability of states to tax

  • Upgrading of Native American management skills

  • Further refinement of the sovereignty issue

  • Casino alcohol among high addiction population segment


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Casino Surveillance (UNLV Library)

  • Casino Surveillance: The Eye That Never Blinks. George Lewis. HV6711/L49/1996

  • Techniques of Casino Surveillance. Marcia A. McDowell. Call no: HV 6711/M358/1995.

  • Biometric Technology/facial imaging


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Casino Surveillance (UNLV Library)

  • Nevada Regulation 5

    • Specified surveillance equipment

    • Procedures for slots, table games, keno, Count Room, etc.

    • Sets retention time for videotapes

    • Limited access to surveillance room

    • PTZ camera (pan, tilt, and zoom)


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Research Value--Surveillance (UNLV Library)

  • Design equipment that meets specs

  • Study the prevalence and variety of cheating scams

  • Estimate undetected cheating and loss of gaming revenue

  • Biometrics use in surveillance


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Gaming & Demographics (UNLV Library)

  • Population count, location & characteristics

  • Age, race, sex, income, occupation, etc.

  • Survey data and sample data

  • Government censuses

  • Independent surveys


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Demographic Sources (UNLV Library)

  • Print and online

  • Census 2000 http://www.census.gov

  • Population Estimates

  • Population Projections

  • Las Vegas Convention & Visitors Authority

    • http://www.lasvegas24hours.com


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Research Value—Demographics (UNLV Library)

  • Identify cohorts for isolation and study

  • Plan new casinos and casino expansion

  • Relate research to real people

  • Balance theory with reality


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Statistics Sources (UNLV Library)

  • Statistical Universe – full text, index to 100,000 publications containing Federal, state, local and international stats

  • U. S. Statistical Abstract – paper and online

  • American Statistics Index -UNLV Government Publications

  • County Business Patterns (need industry code from NAICS) Online

  • Gaming Magazines


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Revenue Statistics (UNLV Library)

  • Current and several years back on Internet

  • Nevada=by Region, no named casinos

  • Categorized by type of game, machine denomination

  • Atlantic City & Riverboats by casino name

  • Indian gaming revenues very hard to find


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Revenue Statistics (UNLV Library)

  • National revenues at American Gaming Association site

  • Gross Gaming Wager at Christiansen Capital Advisors (some fee-based reports)

  • Lottery revenues

  • Australian and Canadian stats online


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Research Value—Statistics (UNLV Library)

  • Pretty obvious, but we’ll say something anyhow

  • Raw data may need interpretation

  • Quantify concepts

  • Prove claims and assertions


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Gaming Courses (UNLV Library)

  • UNLV

  • Boyd Law School (gaming law)

  • Community College of Southern Nevada

  • UNR

  • Outside universities (Houston, SUNY Morrisville, Central Michigan U, Arizona Western College, etc.)

  • http://www.collegesource.org


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Casino Executive Development (UNLV Library)

  • UNLV International Gaming Institute

  • Executive Development Program (UNR)

  • Casino Management Association

  • NIGA Training Program

  • Gaming Education Conferences

  • Gaming Conferences & Expos


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Research Value—Gaming Courses (UNLV Library)

  • Monitor/compare course offerings and content

  • Design gaming courses, degrees majors, minors

  • Incorporate gaming into marketing, tourism,hotel ops, restaurant ops


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Casino Jobs & Job Descriptions (UNLV Library)

  • Appendix to “Introduction to the Casino Entertainment Industry”, by Eade

  • http://www.jobmonkey.com

  • Occupational Outlook Handbook

  • Casino Wage Surveys (UNLV)


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Casino Compensation (UNLV Library)

  • Casino Wage Surveys (from UNLV’s Human Resource Development Center) Available in library

  • Casino Careers Online

  • Salaryexpert.com (fee-based)

  • Internet search for annual report of gaming executive compensation


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Research Value—Casino Jobs (UNLV Library)

  • Track turnover

  • Compare salaries, educational requirements

  • Conduct employee satisfaction or motivation studies

  • Monitor immigration laws


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Lotteries (UNLV Library)

  • NASPL: North American Society for Public Lotteries Public Gaming International http://www.naspl.org

    • (history, gambling studies, problem gambling, sales & profits

  • World Lottery Almanac http://www.lafleurs.com

  • http://www.lotteryinsider.com


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Research Value—Lotteries (UNLV Library)

  • Compare lottery addiction to casino addiction

  • Compare lottery adverting to casino advertising

  • Identify population segments that prefer lotteries

  • Measure impact of convenience of multiple lottery sales locations


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Internet Gambling (UNLV Library)

  • Currently illegal in U. S.

  • Currently billions spent on I.G.

  • Anthony Cabot monitors the field (5 books so far, largely readings from many authors and many countries)

  • The Kyl Bill; Goodlatte Bill

  • Australian experience, moratorium and restrictions

  • “IGI of Nevada” -guidelines, standards, technology requirements

  • Nevada Assembly Bill (AB) 466 (2001)


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Research Issues—Internet Gambling (UNLV Library)

  • Identity of gambler as to age and jurisdiction

  • How to regulate across state and national borders

  • Contractual obligations of operators

  • Liability of credit card companies for conducting transactions


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Gaming Industry Analyses (UNLV Library)

  • Bear Stearns

    • Gaming Intelligence Reports

    • Partners with Smith Barney

    • Global Gaming Almanac (1999 latest)

    • Jason Ader, Gaming Analyst


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Gaming Industry Analyses (UNLV Library)

  • AAGI ( Applied Analysis Gaming Index)

  • Monthly study of 8 major gaming operators

  • Financial watch and advisory service

  • Headquartered in Las Vegas

  • See web site


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Gaming Financial Data (UNLV Library)

  • Gaming analysts and companies listed in Gaming Business Directory

  • Fee-based services, but limited data on web sites. Publications are expensive.

  • See Hoovers Online, Standard & Poors, Moody’s, Deutche Bank


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Gaming Financial Data (UNLV Library)

  • National Gaming Summary

  • Monthly columns in Casino Journal and other magazines

  • SEC reports http://www.sec.gov

  • Casino Annual Reports


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Research Value—Financials (UNLV Library)

  • Design a study comparing casino financials to general economy

  • Forecast or predict industry trends

  • Profile casino corporations

  • Analyze assets and debt vs. expansion plans


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Gaming Research Institutes (UNLV Library)

  • Alberta Gaming Research Institute

  • Gemini Research

  • Institute for Research in Pathological Gambling & Related Disorders

  • Institute for the Study of Gambling & Commercial Gaming


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Casino Marketing (UNLV Library)


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Casino Marketing (UNLV Library)

  • Apply general principles of marketing

    • American Marketing Association

    • Management First (Emerald Library online)

  • CRM [customer relationship marketing]

  • CLV [customer lifetime value]

  • Database Marketing Institute


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Research Issues—Marketing (UNLV Library)

  • Measure effectiveness of marketing plans

  • Customer perceptions of casino services

  • Segment marketing to ethnic groups

  • Return on investment regarding marketing budgets

  • Unique marketing vs. following the industry


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Opponents of Gaming (UNLV Library)

  • Citizen Link – Focus on the Family

  • National Coalition Against Legalized Gambling

    • Rev. Tom Gray

    • See testimonies in National Gambling Impact Study Report


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Polls and Surveys (UNLV Library)

  • AGA Survey of Casino Entertainment

    • http://www.americangaming.org

  • Gambling Impact & Behavior Study

  • Harrah’s Survey 2002

    • http://www.harrahs.com/about_us/survey

  • Australian Gambling Study

  • Gallup Gambling Poll


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Research Value—Polls,Surveys (UNLV Library)

  • Sample public opinion

  • Conducted by independent consultants

  • Basis for additional research

  • Sometimes all that’s available


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Problem Gambling (UNLV Library)

  • Bibliography on Problem Gambling http://www.naspl.org.bibliog.html

  • Gambler’s Anonymous

  • National Council and many state councils

  • Special sites for Women, Seniors, Underage youth

  • Education, counseling, literature, awareness programs

  • Self-exclusion programs


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Research Issues—Problem Gambling (UNLV Library)

  • Study annual addiction rates of various groups

  • Effect of teen video games on future gambling habits

  • Effectiveness of prevention and treatment programs

  • Identify thought processes and irrational factors that lead to excess


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Research Issues—Problem Gambling (UNLV Library)

  • Social responsibility of casinos to curb, discourage

  • Discovering and testing recovery methods


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POP QUIZ (UNLV Library)

  • Just kidding!!!


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Enjoy Your Research (UNLV Library)

  • Survival Tactics

    • Write once or twice

    • Rewrite 6 times

    • Get feedback

    • Rewrite some more

    • Polish & proofread


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