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  1. User Interfacesfor 3D K. Gatland and D. Jefferis The World of the Future: Robots. 1979, Usborne Hayes.

  2. Outline • Why bother with 3D ? • Some Basic Tasks • Input devices • Output devices • Properties and pitfalls of 3D • Scientific Visualization • Information Visualization in 3D • Interaction techniques and interface schemes • Demos

  3. Why bother with 3D ? • Displaying objects or environments that are naturally 3D (architectural plans, industrial designs, …). Examples: • using VR to shop for a new kitchen • designing an automobile • visualizing CT scans or MRI data http://www.tjhsst.edu/TechLabs/CAD/cad98/rciszek/ahome.htm

  4. Why bother with 3D ? • Scientific Visualization • Where the data has a natural 3D spatial structure Weyl scalar fields from orbiting binary neutron stars. http://jean-luc.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Movies/ Two colliding black holes. http://jean-luc.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Exhibits/exhibits.html sphere eversion • Sometimes, 3D isn’t enough !

  5. Why bother with 3D ? • To harness natural human abilities ? • Pre-conscious processing by the human visual system • Spatial memory

  6. Example: The moon is the largest natural satellite of the earth, and is composed of 30 % cheddar, 40 % mozzarella, 25 % star dust, and 5 % Elmer’s glue. Yesterday, at 12:15 pm, the cow owned by Mrs. Farmwell jumped over the moon. The cow jumped over the moon. http://www.angelfire.com/pa2/klb01/spheregallery2.html • To not use 3D seems like a waste of bandwidth ! • But how do we represent abstract data in 3D ?

  7. Why bother with 3D ? • We can pack more information, and more complex relationships, into 3D • Information visualization • Where abstract data is embedded into 3D • Example below: Anemone (Benjamin Fry) Using the process of organic information design to visualize the changing structure of a web site, juxtaposed with usage information. http://acg.media.mit.edu/people/fry/anemone/

  8. Why not bother with 3D ? • Added complexity • Many more degrees of freedom to handle • “Standard” input/output devices not designed for 3D • Interfaces may be difficult to learn The benefits shouldoutweigh the costs !

  9. Some Basic Tasks • Specify a point (3 DOF) • Specify an orientation (3 DOF) • Specify a path • Selecting an object or region in space • Create an object or surface • Navigation (6 DOF) • Finding out where something is

  10. Navigation: Camera Control

  11. Zoom vs Dolly (Translation) From slides by Chris North

  12. Metaphors for Camera Navigation • World-in-hand • Eyeball-in-hand (a.k.a. egocentric) • Walking • Flying

  13. Some Input Devices • Plain old 2D mouse • Use picking ray to select objects • Translate a 3D cursor, 1 or 2 dimensions at a time • 2+1 D pointers • E.g. mouse + thumbwheel; lever that can be pushed/pulled • 3D pointers • E.g. trackers, floating mice, … • Higher DOF devices • Data glove, shape tape, …

  14. Spaceball; Logitech Magellan http://www.alsos.com/Products/Devices/SpaceBall.html • 6 DOF, but … • Rate control rather than position control

  15. Rockin’ Mouse R. Balakrishnan, T. Baudel, G. Kurtenbach, G. Fitzmaurice (1997). The Rockin’ Mouse: Integral 3D manipulation on a plane. CHI’97.

  16. Shape Tape

  17. “Doll’s Head”: Props-based interface for 3D Cutting Plane • Ken Hinckley From slides by Chris North

  18. Output devices • Flat screens • Stereoscopic displays • Red/green glasses, LCD shutters, head-mounted displays • Autostereoscopic displays • Re-imaging displays • Parallax displays (e.g. holographic displays) • Volumetric displays For more info on autostereoscopic displays: http://web.media.mit.edu/~halazar/autostereo/autostereo.html

  19. High Fidelity 3D Output • Stereoscopic • Convergence • Accommodation

  20. Boom Chameleon(G. Fitzmaurice et al.) • Navigation is easy to learn • 3D view can be shared • Not stereoscopic G. Fitzmaurice and fakespacesystems.com

  21. Virtual Reality Head-mounted display High DOF input device • “Immersive”, but also cumbersome ? • Stereoscopic, but no ocular accommodation

  22. Volumetric Display The Perspecta display. www.actuality-systems.com • Stereoscopic, and ocular accommodation ! • No occlusion, and no view independent shading  • Interesting property: no perspective projections possible

  23. Volumetric Display Elizabeth Downing, www.3dtl.com

  24. Properties and Pitfalls of 3D

  25. What is this ? • What’s behind it ? What’s on the other side ? • What’s behind me ? • 3D is inherently subjective

  26. Where am I ?

  27. Where am I ?

  28. Where am I ?

  29. Cues (visual, and depth) • Occlusion • Gives ordinal information • Transparency • Perspective • Relative size, foreshortening, converging lines • Stereopsis • Motion parallax • Contour, shading, specular highlights, reflections • Shadows (e.g. drop shadows) • Ground plane grid, coloured sky • Landmarks, compass arrows

  30. Example use of cues Vida Dujmovi\'{c}, Pat Morin, David R. Wood Path-Width and Three-Dimensional Straight-Line Grid Drawings of Graphs GD 2002

  31. Example use of cues: card readers

  32. Example use of cues:Shading with surface normals (images by Michael McGuffin)

  33. Example use of cues Product Logo http://www.cri-mw.co.jp/products/product_adx_e.htm

  34. Example use of cues Plumb Design’s Visual Thesaurus http://www.visualthesaurus.com/

  35. Scientific Visualization

  36. From an ad for GRAFTOOL software, made by 3-D Visions, appearing in the January 1992 issue of Scientific American.

  37. From an ad for GRAFTOOL software, made by 3-D Visions, appearing in the January 1992 issue of Scientific American.

  38. From an ad for GRAFTOOL software, made by 3-D Visions, appearing in the January 1992 issue of Scientific American.

  39. Cutting Planes & Isosurfaces http://www.slicerdicer.com/2astrolg.html

  40. Geological Data http://www.slicerdicer.com/6geolg.html

  41. Volumetric Data Janet Haswell “Visualizing Electromagnetic Data” in G. Grinstein and H. Levkowitz (Eds.) “Perceptual Issues in Visualization” pp. 109--125 1995 Springer

  42. Textures for enhacing cues L. M. de la Cruz, I. Garcia, V. Godoy, E. Ramos, “Case study: parallel lagrangian visualization applied to natural convective flows”, ACM PVG 2001

  43. Sphere Eversion http://www.geom.umn.edu/~munzner/ieee94/ieee/node25.html

  44. Sphere Eversion http://www.geom.umn.edu/graphics/pix/Video_Productions/Outside_In/blue-red-alpha.html

  45. Hyperbolic Space http://www.geom.umn.edu/~munzner/ieee94/ieee/node25.html

  46. Hierarchical Flow Diagram PhD thesis of H. Loeffelmann http://www.vrvis.at/vis/

  47. Medical Vis C. Balazs et al. http://www.vrvis.at/vis/research/npvr/

  48. Medical Vis C. Balazs et al. http://www.vrvis.at/vis/research/npvr/

  49. Information Visualization in 3D If Keanu Reeves does it, it must be cool, no ?

  50. 3D message board • Looks cool, but … • User spends most of their time navigating  • How to fix ?