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Overtraining. Dr. Noel McCaffrey Lecturer, Centre for Sport Science and Health, DCU Medical Director, O’Neills Sports Medicine, UCD & DCU. overtraining. the training / preparation challenge what is the overtraining syndrome do we understand the mechanism? recognition

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overtraining

Overtraining

Dr. Noel McCaffrey

Lecturer, Centre for Sport Science and Health, DCU Medical Director, O’Neills Sports Medicine, UCD & DCU

overtraining2
overtraining
  • the training / preparation challenge
  • what is the overtraining syndrome
  • do we understand the mechanism?
  • recognition
  • treatment and prevention
slide3

training areas

  • Resistance
  • choice of exercise
  • order of exercise
  • volume (sets x reps)
  • intensity (% rep max)
  • rest (between sets)
  • Speed
  • speed generation
  • repeat speed
  • Endurance
  • central adaptation
  • peripheral (sport specific) adaptation
  • cross training (injured)

Skills

technique repetition

Team play

the challenge
the challenge

provide continuous training stimulus with adequate variety, recovery, progression to

  • facilitate optimum performance at the right time(s)
  • avoid OTS
  • minimise injury
the overtraining syndrome
the overtraining syndrome

a condition characterised by

  •  performance in training / competition (incl technical)
  •  effort required to deliver same performance
  • failure to show progression / improvement

despite maintained or increased training

slide6
overtraining process  overtraining syndrome

other words

staleness overwork

burnout chronic fatigue

overfatigue overstrain

slide7

inadequate recovery

Fitness Level

Session 1

Session 2

Session 3

Days

slide8

overload

training stimulus

adequate recovery

training increase

(appropriate)

 performance

over-reaching

training stimulus

inadequate recovery

repeated (+ ) training

 performance

rest

full recovery in 2-3weeks

overtraining

training stimulus

inadequate recovery

repeated (+ ) training

 performance

no recovery with rest

prevalence of ot
prevalence of OT

signs and symptoms of OT seen in

  •  60% distance runners over a career
  •  50% pro soccer players in a 5 month competitive season
  • 33% basketball players in a 6 week training camp
common symptoms of ots
general fatigue

malaise

 energy (malaise)

 enthusiasm

 motivation

irritable / restless

anxious

appetite change

weight loss

depression

 focus / concentration

common symptoms of OTS
diagnostic difficulties
diagnostic difficulties

diagnosis of exclusion

different symptoms with

  • different individuals doing same same training
  • acute vs chronic  performance
  •  volume vs  intensity
  • sympathetic vs parasympathetic models
  • endurance vs ‘anaerobic’ overtraining
parasympathetic overtraining
parasympathetic overtraining

volume overload (resistance or endurance)

  •  testosterone : cortisol ratio
  • fatigue
  • depression
  • apathy
  •  resting HR
sympathetic overtraining
sympathetic overtraining

intensity overload

  • insomnia
  • irritability
  • restlessness
  •  HR
  •  blood pressure
overuse injuries
internal factors

body mass

biomechanics

nutrition

technique

fatigue

external factors

training volume

training intensity

repetition

footwear

surface

equipment

overuse injuries
what causes it
what causes it?

imbalance / mismatch

training recovery

exercise exercise capacity

stress stress tolerance

initiating events
initiating events
  •  volume / intensity of training
  • monotony of training
  • illness (disease / infection)
  • caloric restriction /  carbohydrate intake
  • iron deficiency
  • exercise-heat stress
  • personal / emotional problems
  • occupational stress
biological markers
 blood constitiuents

haemoglobin / hematocrit

white cells

iron

blood lactate in submax / max exercise

testosterone / cortisol

catecholamines (resting / nocturnal)

cardiorespiratory

 resting / max heart rate

VO2max

 heart rate / VO2 / VE during exercise

 basal metabolic rate

 infection

biological markers
immune system
immune system
  •  upper respiratory tract infection in OR / OT athlethes
  • cause or effect?
slide19

causes of persistent fatigue and underperformance in sport

  • less common
  • dehydration
  • diabtees
  • eating disorders
  • hepatitis
  • hypothyroidism
  • postconcussion
  • substance abuse
  • lr resp tract infection
  • side effects of
  • meds / supplements
  • nutrition
    •  carbo / protein
  • common
  • caffeine withdrawal
  • allergies
  • ex-induced asthma
  •  sleep
  •  iron (+/- anaemia)
  • performance anxiety
  • infection
    • mononucleosis
    • upp. resp tract infection
  • OTS
  • mood disorder
    • anxiety / depression
  • rare
  • endocrine disease
  •  or  adrenal gland
  • heart disease
  • HIV
  • malabsorption
  • lung disease
  • malignancy
  • renal disease
  • neuromuscular disease
fatigue
What is it

failure to generate or maintain desired exercise intensity

peripheral mechanism (fuel depletion)

central mechanisms ( brain serotonin)

core symptom of many illnesses

Fatigue in illness

viral illness

anaemia

hypothyroidism

hypoglycaemia

chronic fatigue syndrome

depression

fatigue
ots and major depression
general fatigue / malaise

 appetite

irritable / restless

 body weight

 motivation

interest / pleasure

 concentration

feeling hopeless / worthless

feeling sad

persistent physical symptoms that fail to respond

suicidal thoughts

OTS and Major Depression
treatment and prevention
 recovery days

periodise

 variety

ensure vol : intensity inverse relationship

avoid high intensity over prolonged period

avoid high intensity over prolonged period

in resistence sessions, avoid completing every set of every exercise in every session

avoid overworking one area

avoid excess eccentric work

Treatment and Prevention

? role for antidepressant medication