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MIS 301 Information Systems in Organizations. Dave Salisbury salisbury@udayton.edu (email) http://www.davesalisbury.com/ (web site). What We Will Cover:. The Stages of E-Commerce First Generation E-Commerce Technologies: Establishing a Web Presence

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MIS 301 Information Systems in Organizations

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    1. MIS 301Information Systems in Organizations Dave Salisbury salisbury@udayton.edu (email) http://www.davesalisbury.com/ (web site)

    2. What We Will Cover: • The Stages of E-Commerce • First Generation E-Commerce Technologies: Establishing a Web Presence • Second Generation E-Commerce Technologies: Providing Interaction • Third Generation E-Commerce Technologies: Supporting Transactions • Fourth Generation E-Commerce Technologies: Transforming Process

    3. Student ROI (Return on Investment) • Your investment of time and effort in this course will result in your being able to answer these questions: • How has e-commerce evolved over the years to provide ever-increasing business value? • Why do many businesses still rely on first generation e-commerce technologies? • How do the second-generation e-commerce technologies provide businesses with more effective customer relationship management? • How do the third-generation e-commerce technologies support business transactions. • How the fourth-generation e-commerce technologies contribute to strategic alliances.

    4. The Stages of E-commerce • Previously you were introduced to the applications of e-commerce. Now, you will be introduced to the underlying technologies support e-commerce. • In its short history, e-commerce has gone through several distinct generations of growth.

    5. Four Generations of E-commerce • First generation: static content such as company information, online marketing, and company brochures. • Second generation: dynamic content where Web page changes depending on a number of factors such as time and date, user profile, or browser location. • Third generation: growth in businesses’ ability to support transactions on the Web. • Fourth generation: increasing integration with external partners on the Web including allowing transactions between Web applications.

    6. E-commerce Generations

    7. First Generation: Establishing a Web Presence • Basic technologies are still used: • Client/server networks: the networks over which data travel. • Browser: the application software that lets users request and view Web pages. • HTTP protocol: the standardized rules for exchanging data over the Web. • HTML: the language that guides the display of a requested page.

    8. Client/Server Network

    9. Web Browsers • A Web browser is the software that allows you to navigate the Web and to view content you find there. • It responds to the URL you enter or the hyperlink you click by displaying a hypertext-based file. • Hypertext organizes content into units that are connected using associations called links. • Browsers typically include a graphical user interface (GUI) that make them easy to use. • Browsers have multimedia capabilities that enhance the information a business conveys. • Browsers all work similarly presenting a common interface to all users.

    10. HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol • HTTP comprises a set of rules for formatting and transmitting messages over the Web. • HTTP is connectionless and stateless meaning it forgets about requests and responses after they are complete. • This feature of HTTP requires work-arounds to support e-commerce.

    11. HTML: Hypertext Markup Language • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the primary language for creating Web pages. • The browser interprets the HTML through the use of tags which are used to format the content of the Web page. • The tags,enclosed in angle brackets (< and >) mark the placement and appearance of page components.

    12. HTML Example

    13. Second Generation: Providing Interaction • Providing interaction between the Web page and user requires dynamic content based on user input and programming instructions. • The process is: • Obtain input data • Pass data to Web server • Hold data in memory • Execute the programming instructions to process the data • Input data comes from several sources • Web page header information about user • Server resources like the system clock • Stored data about the user from a cookie • Data input using an HTML form

    14. HTML Forms • The primary method of data input into a Web site is the HTML Form which is composed of one or more HTML controls. • These controls must match the data needs of the transaction and minimize chance of data errors.

    15. Storing Data on the Client Side • To be able to carry out e-commerce transactions, it is necessary to store data about the customer on the client side. • One way to do this is to use a cookie which is small bit of data stored on the client machine and passed back and forth between it and the Web server. • Typical data on a cookie include information about the client machine, the domain name of the server that created it, and so on. • When data remain on the client machine for a period of time, this is a persistent cookie. • Cookies do create privacy concerns when they are used to track browsing habits.

    16. A Cookie File

    17. Making the Client-Side Dynamic and Interactive • To make the interaction with the client machine be dynamic, some sort of programming is required. This can occur on the client-side or the server-side. • Scripting languages like JavaScript are built into the Web page to add dynamic interaction such as data validation. • For more complex tasks, specialized components such as Microsoft’s ActiveX technology, Java applets, and browser plug-ins are used. • ActiveX technology is used for sharing information among different technologies. • An applet is a small program that a browser can download and execute. • A browser plug-in is a small software module that can work with the browser.

    18. Server-side Programming • When programs run on the Web server to provide dynamic interaction, this is known as server-side programming. • It is more powerful than client-side scripting and allows the Web page owner to retain control over the programs. • With server-side programming, a business can: • Deliver content that it customized for each user. • Dynamically modify content for any page. • Access data stored on a server-side database and send it to the client’s browser. • Take action on queries and data sent from client. • Provide access control and security for a Web site • Optimally manage traffic to the site

    19. Server-Side Technologies

    20. The n-Tier Infrastructure • An e-commerce system is composed of various layers or tiers with the number of tiers depending on what components are used. • A typical system is the 4-tier system with a client tier (you and your browser), a Web server tier, an application server tier, and a database server tier. • For a really large system, there will be multiple computers set up to handle the processing at each server tier.

    21. A 4-Tier Structure

    22. Carrying out a Transaction • An HTTP request for a Web page is sent from your browser. • Web server receives request and determines how to respond (almost always sending a Web page.) • If request requires a dynamic response, Web server acts as controller routing messages between client and application server. • When needed, the database server is queried. • Results of an executed application are formulated into a Web page. • The Web server includes dynamically generated page in HTTP response which is sent to browser.

    23. Third Generation: Supporting Transactions • In the third generation of e-commerce, businesses recognized that they must deal with three issues to be successful: • Making it possible for customers to find information about companies, products, and services. • Making it possible for customers to order and paying online for goods and services. • Providing secure and private transactions.

    24. Search Engines • Internet search engines make it possible for customers to find information—probably too much information • When you search the Web, you are really searching a database that was created from previous Web searches. • The main difference in search engines is how the database of Web locations is created and organized. • Web sites are found by a Web crawler and are submitted by humans. • An important consider is how the database organizes or indexes the Web data. Which pages are shown first when you submit search criteria?

    25. The Search Engine Process

    26. Order and Payment Systems • All e-commerce sites must have components for processing orders and accepting payments. • The four primary components of a typical e-commerce site are: • The shopping and ordering system • The merchant account • The payment gateway • The security system • Most e-commerce systems use a secure HTML order form or an in-house shopping cart system. • Smaller businesses often use third party merchant accounts like that available from PayPal. • The shopping cart system is the most popular e-commerce system for larger businesses where a customer wants to buy multiple products usually using a credit card.

    27. Merchant Accounts • An important aspect of any e-commerce systems is a merchant account which is a bank account that allows the merchant to receive the proceeds of credit card purchases. • A secure gateway provider is a company that provides a network to process encrypted transactions from a merchant’s Web site. It then passes the transactions on to the issuing banks for credit card approval. • A secure gateway provider will usually provide a payment gateway and a processor. The payment gateway links the e-commerce site to the banking system. • The processor accepts data from the shopping cart, formats it, and enters it into the banking network.

    28. Linking the E-commerce site to the Banking Network