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MIS 301 Information Systems in Organizations. Dave Salisbury salisbury@udayton.edu (email) http://www.davesalisbury.com/ (web site). What We Will Cover:. The Stages of E-Commerce First Generation E-Commerce Technologies: Establishing a Web Presence

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mis 301 information systems in organizations

MIS 301Information Systems in Organizations

Dave Salisbury

salisbury@udayton.edu (email)

http://www.davesalisbury.com/ (web site)

what we will cover
What We Will Cover:
  • The Stages of E-Commerce
  • First Generation E-Commerce Technologies: Establishing a Web Presence
  • Second Generation E-Commerce Technologies: Providing Interaction
  • Third Generation E-Commerce Technologies: Supporting Transactions
  • Fourth Generation E-Commerce Technologies: Transforming Process
student roi return on investment
Student ROI (Return on Investment)
  • Your investment of time and effort in this course will result in your being able to answer these questions:
    • How has e-commerce evolved over the years to provide ever-increasing business value?
    • Why do many businesses still rely on first generation e-commerce technologies?
    • How do the second-generation e-commerce technologies provide businesses with more effective customer relationship management?
    • How do the third-generation e-commerce technologies support business transactions.
    • How the fourth-generation e-commerce technologies contribute to strategic alliances.
the stages of e commerce
The Stages of E-commerce
  • Previously you were introduced to the applications of e-commerce. Now, you will be introduced to the underlying technologies support e-commerce.
  • In its short history, e-commerce has gone through several distinct generations of growth.
four generations of e commerce
Four Generations of E-commerce
  • First generation: static content such as company information, online marketing, and company brochures.
  • Second generation: dynamic content where Web page changes depending on a number of factors such as time and date, user profile, or browser location.
  • Third generation: growth in businesses’ ability to support transactions on the Web.
  • Fourth generation: increasing integration with external partners on the Web including allowing transactions between Web applications.
first generation establishing a web presence
First Generation: Establishing a Web Presence
  • Basic technologies are still used:
    • Client/server networks: the networks over which data travel.
    • Browser: the application software that lets users request and view Web pages.
    • HTTP protocol: the standardized rules for exchanging data over the Web.
    • HTML: the language that guides the display of a requested page.
web browsers
Web Browsers
  • A Web browser is the software that allows you to navigate the Web and to view content you find there.
  • It responds to the URL you enter or the hyperlink you click by displaying a hypertext-based file.
  • Hypertext organizes content into units that are connected using associations called links.
  • Browsers typically include a graphical user interface (GUI) that make them easy to use.
  • Browsers have multimedia capabilities that enhance the information a business conveys.
  • Browsers all work similarly presenting a common interface to all users.
http hypertext transfer protocol
HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol
  • HTTP comprises a set of rules for formatting and transmitting messages over the Web.
  • HTTP is connectionless and stateless meaning it forgets about requests and responses after they are complete.
  • This feature of HTTP requires work-arounds to support e-commerce.
html hypertext markup language
HTML: Hypertext Markup Language
  • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the primary language for creating Web pages.
  • The browser interprets the HTML through the use of tags which are used to format the content of the Web page.
  • The tags,enclosed in angle brackets (< and >) mark the placement and appearance of page components.
second generation providing interaction
Second Generation: Providing Interaction
  • Providing interaction between the Web page and user requires dynamic content based on user input and programming instructions.
  • The process is:
    • Obtain input data
    • Pass data to Web server
    • Hold data in memory
    • Execute the programming instructions to process the data
  • Input data comes from several sources
    • Web page header information about user
    • Server resources like the system clock
    • Stored data about the user from a cookie
    • Data input using an HTML form
html forms
HTML Forms
  • The primary method of data input into a Web site is the HTML Form which is composed of one or more HTML controls.
  • These controls must match the data needs of the transaction and minimize chance of data errors.
storing data on the client side
Storing Data on the Client Side
  • To be able to carry out e-commerce transactions, it is necessary to store data about the customer on the client side.
  • One way to do this is to use a cookie which is small bit of data stored on the client machine and passed back and forth between it and the Web server.
  • Typical data on a cookie include information about the client machine, the domain name of the server that created it, and so on.
  • When data remain on the client machine for a period of time, this is a persistent cookie.
  • Cookies do create privacy concerns when they are used to track browsing habits.
making the client side dynamic and interactive
Making the Client-Side Dynamic and Interactive
  • To make the interaction with the client machine be dynamic, some sort of programming is required. This can occur on the client-side or the server-side.
  • Scripting languages like JavaScript are built into the Web page to add dynamic interaction such as data validation.
  • For more complex tasks, specialized components such as Microsoft’s ActiveX technology, Java applets, and browser plug-ins are used.
  • ActiveX technology is used for sharing information among different technologies.
  • An applet is a small program that a browser can download and execute.
  • A browser plug-in is a small software module that can work with the browser.
server side programming
Server-side Programming
  • When programs run on the Web server to provide dynamic interaction, this is known as server-side programming.
  • It is more powerful than client-side scripting and allows the Web page owner to retain control over the programs.
  • With server-side programming, a business can:
    • Deliver content that it customized for each user.
    • Dynamically modify content for any page.
    • Access data stored on a server-side database and send it to the client’s browser.
    • Take action on queries and data sent from client.
    • Provide access control and security for a Web site
    • Optimally manage traffic to the site
the n tier infrastructure
The n-Tier Infrastructure
  • An e-commerce system is composed of various layers or tiers with the number of tiers depending on what components are used.
  • A typical system is the 4-tier system with a client tier (you and your browser), a Web server tier, an application server tier, and a database server tier.
  • For a really large system, there will be multiple computers set up to handle the processing at each server tier.
carrying out a transaction
Carrying out a Transaction
  • An HTTP request for a Web page is sent from your browser.
  • Web server receives request and determines how to respond (almost always sending a Web page.)
  • If request requires a dynamic response, Web server acts as controller routing messages between client and application server.
  • When needed, the database server is queried.
  • Results of an executed application are formulated into a Web page.
  • The Web server includes dynamically generated page in HTTP response which is sent to browser.
third generation supporting transactions
Third Generation: Supporting Transactions
  • In the third generation of e-commerce, businesses recognized that they must deal with three issues to be successful:
    • Making it possible for customers to find information about companies, products, and services.
    • Making it possible for customers to order and paying online for goods and services.
    • Providing secure and private transactions.
search engines
Search Engines
  • Internet search engines make it possible for customers to find information—probably too much information
  • When you search the Web, you are really searching a database that was created from previous Web searches.
  • The main difference in search engines is how the database of Web locations is created and organized.
  • Web sites are found by a Web crawler and are submitted by humans.
  • An important consider is how the database organizes or indexes the Web data. Which pages are shown first when you submit search criteria?
order and payment systems
Order and Payment Systems
  • All e-commerce sites must have components for processing orders and accepting payments.
  • The four primary components of a typical e-commerce site are:
      • The shopping and ordering system
      • The merchant account
      • The payment gateway
      • The security system
  • Most e-commerce systems use a secure HTML order form or an in-house shopping cart system.
  • Smaller businesses often use third party merchant accounts like that available from PayPal.
  • The shopping cart system is the most popular e-commerce system for larger businesses where a customer wants to buy multiple products usually using a credit card.
merchant accounts
Merchant Accounts
  • An important aspect of any e-commerce systems is a merchant account which is a bank account that allows the merchant to receive the proceeds of credit card purchases.
  • A secure gateway provider is a company that provides a network to process encrypted transactions from a merchant’s Web site. It then passes the transactions on to the issuing banks for credit card approval.
  • A secure gateway provider will usually provide a payment gateway and a processor. The payment gateway links the e-commerce site to the banking system.
  • The processor accepts data from the shopping cart, formats it, and enters it into the banking network.