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Interactions of Living Things. By: Mr. Hunter. Who eats whom?. Killer whale Krill shrimp Algae Leopard seal Cod fish. Ecology. Ecology : the study of the interactions of organisms with one another and with their environment. Abiotic/Biotic. Biotic: LIVING Abiotic: NON-LIVING.

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Presentation Transcript
who eats whom
Who eats whom?
  • Killer whale
  • Krill shrimp
  • Algae
  • Leopard seal
  • Cod fish
ecology
Ecology
  • Ecology: the study of the interactions of organisms with one another and with their environment
abiotic biotic
Abiotic/Biotic
  • Biotic: LIVING
  • Abiotic: NON-LIVING
cycling
Cycling

Matter and energy cycle between the abiotic and biotic parts of ecosystems.

levels of organization
Levels of Organization
  • Individual Organism:one living thing
  • Population:groups of the same kinds of living things
  • Community: interacting populations
  • Ecosystem: living and nonliving things in an area
  • Biosphere: where life is on Earth
energy is transferred in an ecosystem
Energy is transferred in an ecosystem
  • 1. All energy required for life to exist on earth comes from the _____ .
  • 2. How is the energy from this source transferred to living things?
define each of the following give three examples of each
Define each of the following.Give three examples of each.
  • 1. producer
  • 2. photosynthesis
  • 3. consumers
  • 4. herbivores
  • 5. carnivores
  • 6. omnivores
  • 7. scavengers
  • 8. decomposers
cockroaches
Cockroaches
  • Have survived for 300 million years
  • Most successful and well-adapted scavenger of all times
  • Scavenged dinosaur bones long before they survived on crumbs and kitchen scraps of humans
cockroaches15
Cockroaches
  • Dead skin and fingernails is a real treat for them; leftover food is a delicacy.
  • Cockroaches can survive on unlikely food sources like shoe polish, paint, and soap.
turkey vultures
Turkey Vultures
  • Turkey vultures used their acute sense of smell to locate decaying carcasses that scientists hid in the California foothills.
  • Engineers once pumped ethyl mercaptan into natural gas lines and allowed turkey vultures to find the leaks, since this chemical smells like rotting flesh.
food chains
Food Chains
  • 1. Refer back to our marine food chain. Which animals were producers, consumers, and decomposers? What type of consumer was each animal?
  • 2. Think about your last meal. Trace the origin of the energy you received from each type of food.
food chain
Food Chain
  • Food Chain: a diagram that shows how energy in food flows from one organism to another
  • Food web: a diagram that shows feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem; shows how matter and energy are transferred between organisms.
energy pyramid
Energy Pyramid
  • Energy pyramids show that energy decreases towards the consumer.
  • Energy pyramids show that number of organisms increases in the direction towards the producer.
gray wolves
Gray Wolves
  • 1. Gray wolves are _____ on the food chain.
  • 2. How are gray wolves related to overgrazing?
gray wolves21
Gray Wolves
  • 3. How are other animals affected by the disappearance of the gray wolves?
  • 4. What is the controversy in Yellowstone National Park related to reintroducing gray wolves? Do you think these concerns are valid? Why or why not?
human population
Human Population
  • The human population exemplifies exponential growth.
  • The larger the human population becomes, the faster the population grows.
what do you think
What do you think?
  • 1. Why do you think the human population has exhibited exponential growth?
  • 2. What do you think could cause the human population to stop growing?
limiting factors
Limiting Factors
  • A limiting factor is a resource that is so scarce that it limits the size of a population.
  • What did you think the limiting factors are for the human population?
carrying capacity29
Carrying Capacity
  • The largest population that an environment can support is known as the carrying capacity.
  • Do you think that the human population has reached its carrying capacity? Why or why not?
how do organisms affect one another
How do organisms affect one another?
  • Competition
  • Predator/Prey
  • Symbiotic Relationships
  • Coevolution
competition
Competition
  • What is a competition? How do you think this word could be applied to something in nature?
competition32
Competition

Competition happens within a population and between populations.

How do you think competition happens within a population?

How do you think competition happens between populations?

predator prey34
Predator/Prey
  • Adaptations: improves an individual’s ability to survive and reproduce in an environment
predator prey adaptations
Predator/Prey Adaptations
  • What would be the main prey adaptation of the roadrunner?
  • What would be an example of how this prey adaptation may be used as a predator adaptation in another situation?
think of an example of each in nature
Think of an example of each in nature….
  • 1. camouflage
  • 2. defensive chemicals
  • 3. warning coloration
what examples does the text provide
What examples does the text provide?
  • 1. camouflage
  • 2. defensive chemicals
  • 3. warning coloration
symbiosis
Symbiosis
  • Symbiosis: a close, long-term relationship between two or more species
  • Symbiotic relationships are mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.
mutualism40
Mutualism
  • Both species benefit from the relationship
slide41
A remarkable 3-way mutualism appears to have evolved between an ant, a butterfly caterpillar, and an acacia in the American southwest. The caterpillars have nectar organs which the ants drink from, and the acacia tolerates the feeding caterpillars. The ants appear to provide some protection for both plant and caterpillar.
how would each be an example of mutualism
How would each be an example of mutualism?
  • Bacteria in your intestines
  • Corals and algae
commensalism
Commensalism
  • Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected.
slide45
1. an insect gets nectar from a flower and spreads its pollen from one flower to another
  • 2. coral and algae
  • 3. barnacles adhering to the skin of a whale
  • 4. some tropical orchids use trees or branches of trees for support without harm or benefit to the tree
  • 5. a leech attaching to the skin of a human and sucking blood
  • 6. heartworms live in the hearts of dogs
  • 7. Female mosquitoes ingest blood for the protein