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Rites and Festivals. Holidays: Times for Communal Involvement. Rites. Circumcision of the male child at 8 days. The whole community celebrates. Male Circumcision. Bar Mitzvah (Bas Mitzvah girl) boy reaches 13 years of age demonstrates acceptance of Covenant. Bar Mitzvah.

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Rites and Festivals

Holidays: Times for Communal Involvement

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Circumcision of the male child at 8 days. The whole community celebrates.

Male Circumcision

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Bar Mitzvah (Bas Mitzvah girl) boy reaches 13 years of age demonstrates acceptance of Covenant

Bar Mitzvah

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Jewish marriages are very important. Judaism, like many other religions, is matrilineal.


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For Jews the dead need to be respected and the living need to move on. There are 4 to 5 periods of mourning.




The First Year

Keeping Memory Alive


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Festivals to move on. There are 4 to 5 periods of mourning.

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Pesach (Passover) deliverance from Egypt to move on. There are 4 to 5 periods of mourning.


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Sukkot (tabernacles) Fall Festival. This commemorates the Jews wandering in the wilderness.


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Rosh Hashana (New Year) Esther story.

Rosh Hashana

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Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) Esther story.

Yom Hakippurim

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Period 2 Holocaust.

Part 2

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Changes Holocaust.(Period 2 - Part 2)

Everything must change

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Judaism Holocaust.God’s Promise

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Jewish Beliefs Holocaust.

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Jewish Belief Holocaust.

  • There is no official Jewish creed--however, there are some basic ideas.

    • Belief in God. God is one, formless, all-knowing, and eternal. God is master of the universe as its creator and judge. God is both loving and just.

    • Belief in the words of the prophets.

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Jewish Belief Holocaust.

  • Belief that God gave the law to Moses.

  • Belief that the Messiah, the savior to be sent by God, will come some day.

  • Belief that there will be a resurrection of the good “in the world to come.”

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Maimonides Holocaust.

  • Moses Maimonides

    • Born Cordoba, Spain in 1135

    • Died Egypt 1204

    • One of the greatest Jewish scholars

    • Extensive work on the commentary on the Torah


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13 Principles of the Jewish Faith Holocaust.

  • I believe with perfect faith that

    • God is the creator and Ruler of all things.

    • that God is one.

    • God does not have a body.

    • God is first and last

    • it is proper to pray to God.

    • all the words of all of the prophets are true.

    • the prophecy of Moses is absolutely true.

    • the entire Torah that we how have is that which was given to Moses.

  • I believe with perfect faith that

    • this Torah will not be changed, and there will never be another given by God.

    • God knows all of a man's deeds and thoughts.

    • God rewards those who keep his commandments, and punishes those who transgress Him.

    • in the coming of the Messiah.

    • God that the dead will be brought back to life when God wills it to happen.

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Changes in notions Holocaust.(Period 2 - Part 2)

  • Although the Messiah is the one who will come was literally expected it is no longer interpreted literally.

  • Along immortality of a literal nature has often been expounded many now emphasize the kind of immortality which comes through one’s offspring, acting virtuously in this world or leaving behind charitable contribution.

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Notions Holocaust.

  • Humans have a special role because they are created in the image of God and they have the ability to speak, to reason, to will, to create and to care.

  • They have the ability to demonstrate divine characteristics to the world.

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Divisions within Judaism Holocaust.

  • Cultural Based

  • Observance Based

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Cultural Based Holocaust.

  • Sephardim

  • Ashkenazim

  • Falashas, Ethiopian Jews

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Sephardim Holocaust.

These are Jews who lived in medieval Spain until they were expelled in 1492. Those who refused to become Christians moved to North Africa, Italy and Turkey.

Cultural Based

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Ashkenazim Holocaust.

A Yiddish-speaking group of Jews who settled in central and northern Europe. The term in Hebrew referred to Germany.

Cultural Based

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Falashas Holocaust.

These are Ethiopian Jews who continue to practice sacrifices in their temples. Israelis recognized them publicly as Jews by airlifting many of them to Israel. However, some do not think that they have been completely accepted by the some of the Jewish community.

Cultural Based

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Observance Based Holocaust.

  • Orthodox Judaism

  • Conservative Judaism

  • Reform Judaism

  • Reconstructionist Judaism

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Orthodox Judaism Holocaust.

it came into existence after the Reform began.

A branch of Judaism committed to retaining traditional practice and belief.

They are hesitant about discarding any traditional practices.


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Among the things that they believe are: Holocaust.

In synagogues women are separate from men

There must be a quorum of men for service to begin

Only men celebrate the coming of age (bar mitzvah)


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Males keep their heads covered Holocaust.

Social roles are strictly separate (trad. Men/Women)

Orthodox household keep strict rules about diet.


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Frankel Solomon Schchter was an early leader of this branch. Holocaust.

The Reform movement was too radical.

The Torah and the Talmud must be followed.

Practices can vary from synagogue to synagogue.

Most of the worship service is in Hebrew.


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Males wear head coverings (yarmulkes or kippot) Holocaust.

Members are encouraged to observe kashruth, kosher food laws, Shabbat and holidays.

Change is accepted but with much study and discussion and carefully weighing all traditions.


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David Einhorn and Isaac Mayer Wise inspired this movement in the US.

The Torah has moral authority but ceremonial and dietary laws are no longer binding.

A need for a Jewish homeland was recognized.

Reform Judaism

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An emphasis is placed on religious practice, observing the Sabbath, and keeping the holidays.

Most of the services are in English and males are not required to wear coverings.

Men and women can sit together

Women can be ordained as Rabbis.

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Reform Judaism advocated religious tolerance, Judaism could be combined with secular culture and embraced many of the ideas of the European Enlightenment.

Reform Judaism

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Reform synagogue has women and men sitting together, services are conducted in both Hebrew and the native tongue, there are choirs and use of organ.

Traditional ways of dressing are dropped.

The idea is to totally modernize Judaism to be able to survivecontemporary cultures.

More Reform

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Founded by Mordecai Kaplan. services are conducted in both Hebrew and the native tongue, there are choirs and use of organ.

Individuals in this form are introduced to traditional Judaism but are allowed to individually interpret elements.

Reconstructionist Judaism

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Such things as angels, prophecy, revealed law, and the messiah are taken as symbols.

God is seen as “the power which makes me follow even higher ideals.”

Judaism is seen as a changing cultural force.

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The Holocaust messiah are taken as symbols.

The Genocide of a People

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The Holocaust messiah are taken as symbols.

  • Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 began a campaign to remove the Jews from Germany and eventually Europe. He believed that

    • Jews were an inferior race.

    • Jews were conspirators against Germany.

    • Jewish blood poisoned Germany.

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The Holocaust messiah are taken as symbols.

  • He identified them and sent most of them to extermination camps where they were subjected to human experimentation among other things.

  • They were divided into two groups--those who were strong enough to work and those who were not.

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The Holocaust messiah are taken as symbols.

  • First Hitler forcibly removed the Jews, stole their property and harassed them.

  • Then he systematically destroyed the Jews.

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The Holocaust messiah are taken as symbols.

  • The rest were mostly--women, children, the sick and the elderly--were killed immediately.

  • First they used guns but there were too many--they constructed gas chambers and crematoria.

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The Holocaust messiah are taken as symbols.

  • By the end of the war about 12 million people were killed and they were Jews, homosexuals, gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, prisoners of war and political enemies.

  • About half of those killed were Jews, approximately 1/3rd of the Jewish population of the world.

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Zionism messiah are taken as symbols.

Creation of the State of Isreal

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Zionism messiah are taken as symbols.

  • Theodore Hertzel was the founder of the movement which advocated a Jewish home country.

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Creation of the State of Israel messiah are taken as symbols.

  • Three important steps:

    • Idea of a separate Jewish state, described in a book entitled The Jewish State.

    • The Balfour Declaration of 1917 by the British government.

    • After WWII in part because of the Nazi slaughter of the Jews the United Nations voted to divide the British portion of Palestine for the Jewish State.

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Sources messiah are taken as symbols.

  • Slide 3 – http://www.noharmm.org/images/brisisrael.jpg

  • Slide 4 –http://www.wildernessstudio.com/BarMitzvah.html

  • Slide 5 – http://www.wildernessstudio.com/JewishWedding.html

  • Slide 8 – http://www.cmo.nl/pe/pe6/pesach.gif

  • Slide 9 – http://www.israelartguide.co.il/yisrael/miryam/5a.jpg

  • Slide 10 – http://www.ahavaschesed.com/images/graphics_sukkot/outside%20sukkot%202000%2002.jpg

  • Slide 11 – http://ddickerson.igc.org/vinnitsa-images/purim-gnivan.gif

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Sources messiah are taken as symbols.

  • Slide 12 – http://www.e-popp.com/mojopro/cg/images/rosh%20hashana.jpg

  • Slide 13 – http://www.bh.org.il/Images/Virtual_Exh/Photos/16.jpg

  • Slide 14 – http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~oberle/hanukkah.jpg


  • Slide 15 – http://kievershul.tripod.com/holidays.html

  • Slide 27 – http://www.jmcponline.org/graphics/sephardi/faces.jpg

  • Slide 28 – http://www.jmcponline.org/graphics/ashkenazi/faces.jpg

  • Slide 29 – http://www.israel-inside.com/falashas.htm

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Sources messiah are taken as symbols.

  • Slide 32 – http://www.peterlanger.com/People/Religion/Judaism/pages/ILJER063.htm

  • Slide 33 – http://www.ou.org/mike/atprayer.jpg

  • Slide 34 – http://i-cias.com/e.o/ill/jud_orth01.jpg

  • Slide 35 – http://www.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/363_Transp/shechter.gif

  • Slide 36 – http://www.bethshalomcarrollcounty.org/images/conservative.gif

  • Slide 37 – http://www.kenesethisrael.org/archive/Rabbis-Senior/RabbisSenior.htm

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Sources messiah are taken as symbols.

  • Slide 38 – http://www.huc.edu/aja/IWise.htm

  • Slide 39 – http://www.ardom.co.il/maayan-bmidbar/pic1.jpg

  • Slide 40 – http://uahc-psw.org/Cantor%20Choir%205%20.JPG

  • Slide 41 – http://www.jrf.org/rt/kaplan-young%20big.gif

  • Slide 42 – http://learn.jtsa.edu/topics/reading/bookexc/gillman_conservativej/chap5/page75.jpg