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Bridge Engineering Research at The University of Sheffield

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  1. Bridge Engineering ResearchatThe University of Sheffield Dr Paul Reynolds Vibration Engineering Section http://vibration.shef.ac.uk/

  2. The Department of Civil and Structural Engineering • 27 academics – 11 in structures • Particular research strengths in • structures (dynamics, NFR, fire, computational mechanics) • concrete materials (durability, sustainability) • groundwater protection and restoration • Areas of interest specific to bridge engineering • use of FRP composites in bridges • masonry arch bridges and parapets • vibration serviceability of footbridges Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  3. The Centre for Cement and Concrete (CCC) • Established 1993 • Director: Professor Peter Waldron • Academic Members: 17 • Researchers: 48 • Manager: Dr Kypros Pilakoutas Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  4. Vibration Engineering Section • VES was established by Prof. Peter Waldron in 1993 • Currently managed by Drs Paul Reynolds and Aleksandar Pavic • Expertise in vibration serviceability of civil engineering structures, including: • floors • sports stadia • footbridges Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  5. London Millennium Bridge Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  6. Vibration Serviceability of Footbridges • VES has been engaged in footbridge VS research since 1993 • London Millennium Bridge raised awareness of the problems • SLE is a relatively uncommon particular problem that needs to be fully understood • there are much more common issues that require further research Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  7. Areas of Current Uncertainty Synchronous Lateral Excitation (SLE) Source Path Receiver • Pedestrian Excitation • individual pedestrians • small groups • large crowds • Vandal Loading • Non-Pedestrian Excitation • Modelling • inclusion of non- structural components • boundary conditions • simplified methods? • Designing in Damping • the future? • Acceptable Levels of • Vibration • stationary vs. moving • Levels of Vibration to • cause “lock-in” • horizontal • vertical Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  8. VES Approach to VS Analytical Modelling Dynamic Testing • Finite Element Analysis • (usually ANSYS) • MATLAB simulations • time domain simulations using convolution methods • Monte-Carlo simulations to examine statistical models of human excitation • Modal Testing • using shaker excitation • using natural/ambient excitation • Vibration Response • Measurements • controlled pedestrians • vandal loading • Remote Monitoring • FE model correlation • MAC/COMAC etc. • FE model updating • FEMtools software LEARNING HOW TO MODEL BETTER FOOTBRIDGEDYNAMICS Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  9. Shaker Modal Testing Aberfeldy Footbridge – Scotland Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  10. Shaker Modal Testing Input LinearSystem Output controlled shaker excitation acceleration response measurement natural frequencies mode shapes modal damping ratios modal masses Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  11. Shaker Modal Testing • Lateral Modes f = 0.98 Hz ζ = 1.0 % f = 2.73 Hz ζ = 1.2 % f = 5.72 Hz ζ = 1.7 % f = 8.50 Hz ζ = 2.7 % Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  12. Shaker Modal Testing • Vertical Modes f = 1.52 Hz ζ = 0.4 % f = 1.86 Hz ζ = 0.70 % f = 2.49 Hz ζ = 0.7 % f = 3.01 Hz ζ = 0.8 % Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  13. Shaker Modal Testing • Torsional Modes f = 3.48 Hz ζ = 5.5 % f = 4.29 Hz ζ = 3.2 % f = 5.10 Hz ζ = 4.2 % f = 6.05 Hz ζ = 3.3 % Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  14. Shaker Modal Testing of London Millennium Bridge Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  15. Ambient Vibration Testing Royal Victoria Dock Bridge – London Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  16. Ambient Vibration Testing f = 0.39 Hz ζ = 1.7 % f = 1.27 Hz ζ = 0.8 % f = 2.58 Hz ζ = 0.4 % Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  17. Pedestrian Response Tests Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  18. Areas for Future Research Areas of Current Uncertainty Synchronous Lateral Excitation (SLE) Source Path Receiver • Pedestrian Excitation • individual pedestrians • small groups • large crowds • Vandal Loading • Non-Pedestrian Excitation • Modelling • inclusion of non- structural components • boundary conditions • simplified methods? • Designing in Damping • the future? • Acceptable Levels of • Vibration • stationary vs. moving • Levels of Vibration to • cause “lock-in” • horizontal • vertical Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  19. Driving Interests for FRP High strength Durability Low weight Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  20. Eurocrete – Case Studies ChalgroveFootbridge(1995/96) Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  21. Eurocrete – Case Studies Oslo Footbridge(1996/97) Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  22. US Department of Transportation Sierrita de la Cruz Creek Bridge(2000) Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  23. Research on FRP at Sheffield Bond Column Confinement EBR Flexure and Cracking RC Design Philosophy Plate Bonding Punching Shear Shear Strengthening Shear Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  24. Sheffield Involvement in FRP Research fib Task Group 9.3http://allserv.rug.ac.be/~smatthys/fibTG9.3 Eurocrete Project (94-97) CurvedNFRCRAFT Eureka (03-05)http://www.curvednfr.com EU TMR ConFibreCreteNetwork (97-02)http://www.shef.ac.uk/~tmrnet Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  25. Required Bridge Research on FRP • Demonstration/monitoring projects • Design Guidelines • Whole-life costing studies Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  26. Permanent Formwork • Permanent Formwork Systems Pre-cast concrete Heavy Steel decking Corrosion Fire protection Constant thickness One way spanning Need additional finishes Omni-plank type Crack in tension zone during casting GRC Low stiffness (tensile stress↓) Small (1~2 m span) panels Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  27. GRC Permanent Formwork Drainage Architectural • Light self-weight • Easy to create complicatedshapes • Good Durability of the cover • Fast to install • Corrosion protection to thesteel reinforcement Bridges Tunnels Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  28. Bridge Permanent Formwork • Combination of new materials • Development of integrated permanent formwork solutions • Solve the problem of formwork connections • Case studies • Design guidelines Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  29. Steel Fibres Recycled from Waste Tyres Tyre Recycling Research Work Shredded Bending Tests Bond Tests Cube Tests Design Rules Pyrolysed • Bridge Applications: • Foundations • Decks http://www.shef.ac.uk/tyre-recycling Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  30. Masonry parapet research • EPSRC project (also involving Universities of Liverpool & Teesside) recently completed • Concerned with: (i) fundamental behaviour; (ii) developing reinforcement strategies • Key findings: • Typically failure via large-panel formation (resistance then due to inertia & base friction) • But very weakly mortared walls fail in loose block failure modes • Diagonal reinforcement effective (even when mortar bond v. weak) • Analysis tools now developed which can simulate behaviour in many cases Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  31. Masonry parapet research:potential follow-on work • Do bridge owners wish to support follow-on developments? • Transformation of mechanism analysis research software into usable tool for practitioners • Update CSS guidance note and BS6779-4 to reflect our much improved understanding of how masonry parapet walls resist vehicle impacts Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  32. Masonry parapet research:mechanism analysis software • Method (published in Int. J. Impact Eng, 2002) identifies critical mechanism from a library of possible ones: • Quick & easy to investigate the influence of different parameters Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  33. Masonry parapet research: update to design codes • Original numerical modelling work which underpinned CSS document and BS6779-4 has now been significantly improved upon • Also potential for inclusion of more guidance on reinforcement strategies Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  34. RING1: Masonry arch bridge analysis software • Sophisticated masonry block modelling capability • Simple uncoupled backfill interaction model 1funded to date by Network Rail Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  35. h passive h=KPv Example modified distributions Current backfill interaction models Lateral earth pressures based on modified Rankine theory Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  36. Key Project Aims • Development of RING to include fully coupled modelling of soil and masonry elements • Develop optimised field investigation techniques for backfill characterisation • Calibrate on field, model and laboratory tests: load and kinematic data Work sponsored by Essex County Council in collaboration with Mouchel Essex Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  37. Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  38. Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  39. Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  40. Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  41. Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  42. Image analysis provides soil displacement vectors Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  43. Additional aims: • Incorporate current geotechnical design code principles into assessment methodology • Develop soil and masonry reinforcement modelling capability in RING with automatic optimisation (sponsored by EPSRC) Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

  44. For more information … • Dr Paul Reynolds • Tel: 0114 222 5074 • p.reynolds@sheffield.ac.uk • Web sites: • http://vibration.shef.ac.uk/ • http://www.shef.ac.uk/civil/ • This presentation will be posted at: • http://vibration.shef.ac.uk/presentations/bridgeforum/ Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.