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Arthropods. Chapter 28. Arthropod characteristics. Segmented bodies Tough exoskeleton made of chitin Multiple shapes and textures Jointed appendages: legs and antennae. Arthropod evolution. Modern arthropods have fewer body segments and more specialized appendages.

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arthropods

Arthropods

Chapter 28

arthropod characteristics
Arthropod characteristics
  • Segmented bodies
  • Tough exoskeleton made of chitin
    • Multiple shapes and textures
  • Jointed appendages: legs and antennae
arthropod evolution
Arthropod evolution
  • Modern arthropods have fewer body segments and more specialized appendages.

Fossil of a Trilobite, extinct class of Arthropod

fossil of leanchoilia phylum arthopoda
Fossil of Leanchoilia, Phylum Arthopoda

www.burgess-shale.bc.ca/ gallery/gallery.htm

feeding
Feeding
  • Herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, parasites, blood suckers, filter feeders, and detritovores
  • Variety of mouthparts: pincers, fangs, sickle-shaped jaws, feeding tubes

stag beetle pincers

respiration
Respiration
  • Most arthropods
    • Tracheal tubes: branching network of tubes that deliver and expel air through spiracles
  • Some arthropods (including spiders)
    • Book lungs: layers of respiratory tissue stacked like pages of a book
circulation
Circulation
  • Open circulatory system: heart pumps blood to tissues, sinuses, and cavities but does not return to the heart directly
excretion
Excretion
  • Malpighian tubules: saclike organs that extract wastes from blood and then add them to feces to move through the gut
chrysina quetzalcoatli is freed in cusuco national park leaving a fecal trail
Chrysina quetzalcoatli is freed in Cusuco National Park, leaving a fecal trail

National Geographic

response
Response
  • Sensitive sensory organs (sight, smell, touch)
  • Well-developed nervous system
    • Brain
    • Ventral nerve cord
    • Ganglia: groups of nerve cells
movement
Movement
  • Flexor muscles
  • Extensor muscles
  • Muscle pulling against exoskeleton enables movement
reproduction
Reproduction
  • Terrestrial arthropods: internal fertilization
    • Male places sperm in female
    • Sperm sac that female picks up
  • Aquatic arthropods: internal or external fertilization
growth and development
Growth and development
  • Molting: period of shedding exoskeleton when outgrown
    • Glands secrete digestive enzymes to break down exoskeleton.
    • Glands secrete new exoskeleton.
    • Vulnerable stage

Insect molting case left on tree bark

arthropod subphylums
Arthropod subphylums
  • Crustaceans
  • Spiders and their relatives
  • Insects and their relatives
crustacean characteristics
Crustacean characteristics
  • Two pairs of antennae
  • Two or three body sections
  • Mandibles: chewing mouthparts
  • Body plan: celphalothorax, abdomen, carapace
  • Barnacles have “lost” appendages.
  • Decapods have chelipeds and swimmerets.
    • Ex: shrimp, lobster, crayfish
the anatomy of a crayfish

Tail

Swimmerets

Carapace

First antenna

Mandible

Second antenna

Cheliped

The Anatomy of a Crayfish

Section 28-2

Abdomen

Cephalothorax

Walking legs

chelicerate characteristics
Chelicerate characteristics
  • Four pairs of walking legs
  • Chelicerae mouthparts: fangs that sting and pedipalps that grab prey
  • Two body sections: cephalothorax and abdomen
  • Classes: Merostomata (horseshoe crabs) and Arachnida (spiders, scorpions)
  • Spiders have spinnerets, silk glands.
the anatomy of a spider

Pumpingstomach

Heart

Brain

Intestine

Ovary

Eyes

Malpighiantubules

Poisongland

Anus

Pedipalp

Spiracle

Fanglikechelicera

Spinnerets

Bases ofwalking legs

Silk glands

Airflow

The Anatomy of a Spider

Section 28-2

Cephalothorax

Abdomen

Book Lung

Figure 28–9 

gum shoe spider web theridae family
Gum shoe spider web Theridae family

National Geographic

Photo by Darlyne A. Murawski

uniramia characteristics
Uniramia characteristics
  • Jaws
  • One pair of antennae
  • Unbranched appendages
  • Groups: centipedes, millipedes, insects
why insects are evolutionarily successful
Why insects are evolutionarily successful
  • Flight
  • Variety of stimuli responses
  • Differential feeding methods between young and adult
  • Different morphology between young and adult
insect characteristics
Insect characteristics
  • Compound eyes
  • Some with wings
  • Three part body plan
  • Three pairs of legs
  • Sensitive taste and smell receptors
  • Three appendages for mouth, including pair of mandibles
the anatomy of a grasshopper

Compound eye

Brain

Digestivetract

Malpighian tubules

Antennae

Heart

Reproductive organs

Mouth

Salivaryglands

Legs

Anus

Ganglia

Spiracles

Trachealtubes

Nervecord

The Anatomy of a Grasshopper

Section 28-1

Ventral View

Tracheal tubes

Spiracles

Figure 28–4 

insect life cycle
Insect life cycle
  • Metamorphosis: process of changing shape and form from juvenile to adult stage
    • Incomplete: juvenile stage (nymphs) appear like adults, just smaller
    • Complete: juvenile stage (larvae) becomes pupa, final stage before becoming an adult
metamorphosis
Metamorphosis

Section 28-3

Adult

Eggs

Adult

Eggs

IncompleteMetamorphosis

CompleteMetamorphosis

Larva

Adult

Nymph

Nymph

Immature

Larva

Nymph

Adult

Pupa

Figure 28–18 

insects and humans
Insects and humans
  • Although they can be a nuisance or pest, insects are significant to agriculture.
  • They facilitate flower pollination.
insect communication and societies
Insect communication and societies
  • Chemical cues: pheromones
  • Visual cues: light, flight patterns
  • Some insects form societies where castes, groups of individuals, perform specific tasks.
polyphemus moth
Polyphemus moth

Pheromone chemical: (E,Z)-6,11-Hexadecadienyl acetate

National Geographic

Image  by Joseph Scheer