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9. Storage Tanks. Tanks and Storage Equipment. General Storage of liquid materials is commonly accomplished in industrial plants by use of cylindrical, spherical or rectangular tanks. These tanks may be constructed of wood, concrete, or metal, with metal being the

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tanks and storage equipment
Tanks and Storage Equipment

General

Storage of liquid materials is commonly accomplished in industrial

plants by use of cylindrical, spherical or rectangular tanks. These tanks

may be constructed of wood, concrete, or metal, with metal being the

most common material of construction.

The design of storage vessels involves consideration of details such as

size and number of openings, shape of heads, necessary temperature

and pressure controls and corrosive action of the content.

The necessary wall thickness for metal vessels is a function of:

  • The ultimate tensile strength or the yield point of the metal at the operating temperature.
  • The operating pressure
tanks and storage equipment3
Tanks and Storage Equipment

General

  • The ultimate tensile strength or the yield point of the metal at the operating temperature.
  • The operating pressure
  • The diameter of the tank
  • Joint or welding efficiency
  • Various codes are available which specify the conditions that must be met for different vessels.
storage tanks
STORAGE TANKS

Storage tanks can be divided into the following types:

  • Atmospheric storage
  • Pressure storage
  • Refrigerated storage
storage tanks5
Storage Tanks

1. Atmospheric storage Tanks

- Applied to tanks operating at or near atmospheric pressure.

- They are used to hold liquids which will not vaporize at ambient

temperature.

storage tanks atmospheric tanks
Storage Tanks - Atmospheric Tanks

Atmospheric tanks are categorized primarily as follows:

1. Open top (no roof)

- has no roof and may store or process non-volatile liquids such

as water, brine, etc.

2. Fixed roof

- Fixed roof tanks, such as cone roof or umbrella roof are used to

store low vapor pressure liquids which will not vaporize at

temperature below 120oF.

- Generally used for gas oil, water, chemicals.

3. Floating roof

- Floating roof such as hard top pan and pontoon roof types

eliminate the vapor space above the liquid, allows storage of

higher vapor pressure materials.

- Generally used for crude oil, gasoline, napthas

storage tanks pressure storage tanks
Storage Tanks - Pressure Storage Tanks
  • Pressure storage tanks

– applies to vessels designed to withstand pressures sufficient to

keep liquid stored from vaporizing. Used for high vapor pressure

liquid such as butane, propane etc.

Spheres

- Generally used to store high vapor pressure liquid

Advantage is that it can contain the greatest

amount of liquid for a given amount of steel.

- A sphere can also withstand greater pressures with

a given plate thickness than cylindrical vessels.

storage tanks refrigerated storage tanks
Storage Tanks - Refrigerated Storage Tanks

3. Refrigerated storage tanks

- refers to low temperature/cryogenic storage

- This type is used for gases that liquefy under pressure at

atmospheric temperature.

- In cryogenic storage the gas is at, or near to, atmospheric

pressure and remains liquid because of low temperature.

  • Cryogenic refers to temperature below -10oC
storage of gas
Storage of Gas
  • Bulk transport of fluids

1. Pipe lines

2. Tank cars (railroad)

3. Tank trucks

4. Portable tanks, drum, or bottles

5. Sea going tankers

6. Container ship