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THE FEDERAL BUREACRACY. Examining the “Fourth Branch”. bureaucracy. literally means “rule by desks” government by clerks. bureaucracy.

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The federal bureacracy l.jpg

THE FEDERAL BUREACRACY

Examining the “Fourth Branch”


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bureaucracy

  • literally means “rule by desks”

  • government by clerks


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bureaucracy

Definition:an administrative system, especially in a government, that divides work into specific categories carried out by special departments of nonelected officials


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Characteristics of a Bureaucracy

  • administration of government through departments

  • consists of unelected often highly trained professionals

  • task specialization

  • hierarchical authority


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Public Perceptionsof Bureaucracies

  • impersonal

  • inclined to follow rigid or complex procedures

  • may stifle effectiveness and innovation

  • “red tape”


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The Federal Bureaucracy

What is the federal bureaucracy?


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The Federal Bureaucracy is:

  • 4 million employees; 2.8 million are civilians or “civil servants”

  • President only appoints 3% (patronage or political appointments)

  • 15 cabinet level departments

  • 200+ independent agencies with 2,000+ bureaus, divisions, branches, etc.

  • Biggest - Dept. of Defense, U.S. Postal Service, Veterans Administration


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The Federal Bureaucracy

What does the federal bureaucracy do?


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Functions of the Federal Bureaucracy

Implementation- carry out laws of Congress, executive orders of the President

Administration- routine administrative work; provide services (ex: SSA sends social security checks to beneficiaries)

Regulation- issue rules and regulations that impact the public (ex: EPA sets clean air standards)

Source:http://www.pinkmonkey.com/studyguides/subjects/am_gov/chap6/a0606401.asp


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The Federal Bureaucracy

How is the federal bureaucracy organized?


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The Federal Bureaucracy

Consists of

  • Cabinet Departments

  • Independent Executive Agencies

  • Independent Regulatory Commissions

  • Government Corporations


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Federal Bureaucracy

Federal Bureaucracy

President

Congress

Executive

Office

of the

President

(Ex: OMB, NSC)

Independent

Regulatory

Commissions

(Ex: FCC, SEC)

Independent

Executive

Agencies

(Ex: CIA, NASA)

Cabinet

Departments

(Ex: State, Defense)

Government Corporations

(Ex: Amtrack, Postal Service)


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Organization of the Federal Bureaucracy

Source: www.edmonds.wednet.edu/mths/ClassActivities/ Brzovic/policeymakersChapters12-16/


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The Cabinet Departments

  • The 15 cabinet departments headed by a cabinet secretary appointed by the president and approved by the Senate

  • Each department “expert” in specific policy area

  • Each department has its own budget

  • Department of Homeland Security, created in 2002, is newest department


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Department of Homeland Security

Executive Secretary

Commandant of

Coast Guard (1)

Legislative Affairs

Secretary

----------------------------------

Deputy Secretary

Inspector General

Public Affairs

General Counsel

State and Local Coordination

Civil Rights and

Civil Liberties

Citizenship & Immigration Service

Ombudsman (1)

Director, Bureau of Citizenship & Immigration Services (1)

Special Assistant to the Secretary

(private sector)

Director of the

Secret Service (1)

Small & Disadvantaged

Business

Privacy Officer

National Capital Region Coordination

Chief of Staff

International Affairs

Shared Services

Counter Narcotics

Under Secretary

Management

Under Secretary

Science and Technology

Under Secretary Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection

Under Secretary

Border & Transportation Security

Under Secretary Emergency Preparedness and Response

Note (1): Effective March 1st, 2003


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Independent Executive Agencies

  • Established by Congress with separate status outside the executive branch

  • Given a specific mandate and generally perform a service function, not a regulatory one.

  • Some examples include: Social Security Administration, CIA, NASA, EPA.


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Independent Regulatory Commissions

  • IRCs exist to regulate a specific economic activity or interest such as the Federal Communications Commission (public air waves) or Federal Reserve Board (banking system, money supply)

  • IRCs operate independently from Congress and the President

  • Once appointed and seated, members cannot be removed without cause


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Government Corporations

  • Government owned businesses created by Congress

  • May or may not be profitable, but serve a public need

  • Ex: U.S. Postal Service, Amtrak, Tennessee Valley Authority, Corporation for Public Broadcasting



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97% are career government employees

Only 10% live in the D.C. area

30% work for the D.O.D.

Less than 15% work for social welfare agencies

Most are white collar workers: secretaries, clerks, lawyers, inspectors & engineers

Civil employees more diverse demographically than Congress

Who are the “Bureaucrats?”


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Where do Federal Employees Work?

Source: www.edmonds.wednet.edu/mths/ClassActivities/ Brzovic/policeymakersChapters12-16/


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What Jobs Do Bureaucrats Do?

Source: www.edmonds.wednet.edu/mths/ClassActivities/ Brzovic/policeymakersChapters12-16/


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Who supervises the federal bureaucracy?


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The President Supervises the Bureaucracy

The President can:

  • appoint & remove agency heads

  • reorganize the bureaucracy

  • issue executive orders

  • reduce an agency's budget

President Bush speaks about his budget priorities for FY 2007


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Congress Oversees the Bureaucracy

Congress can:

  • create or abolish agencies & departments

  • cut or reduce funding

  • investigate agency activities

  • hold committee hearings

  • pass legislation that alters an agency's functions

  • influence or even fail to confirm presidential appointments

Former FEMA Chief Michael Brown testifies before

House committee investigating Hurricane Katrina


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Federal Courts Check the Bureaucracy

Federal courts can:

  • through judicial review rule on whether the bureaucracy has acted within the law and the U.S. Constitution

  • provide due process for individuals affected by a bureaucratic action

Supreme Court of the United States



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Thinking Critically

  • Why is the federal bureaucracy often referred to as “the fourth branch?”

  • Some critics believe that the real power in the federal government lies with the federal bureaucracy. To what extent do you believe this is true?


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Title: The Damages of the Bureaucracy

Artist: unknown, La Presna, Panama

Date: May, 2006

Source:http://www.politicalcartoons.com


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Title: Federal Employees Self Esteem Class

Artist: Chip Bok

Date: unknown

Source: http://www.reason.com/9602/bok.gif


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Title: Another Layer of Bureaucracy

Artist: Bob Englehart, The Hartford Courant

Date: February, 2006

Source: : http://www.politicalcartoons.com


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Title: FEMA’s Follies

Artist: Mike Keefe, The Denver Post

Date: April, 2006

Source:http://www.cagle.com/news/FEMASFollies/main.asp