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Parkinson’s Disease . Steven Qian Zhang Student ID: 10301016055 Medical Genetics- Shanghai Medical College Instructor: Professor Liu Wen . Famous Quotations . What folks think about PD . "When the doctor first told me I had Parkinson's, I wanted to kill him" .

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parkinson s disease

Parkinson’s Disease

Steven Qian Zhang

Student ID: 10301016055

Medical Genetics- Shanghai Medical College

Instructor: Professor Liu Wen

famous quotations
Famous Quotations

What folks think about PD

five big w s
Five Big W’s
  • WHAT: Disease in the Central Nervous System
  • WHO:
    • People
    • Male/Female (equally affected)
    • Old Male/Female
    • White Old Male/Female (higher %)
  • WHERE:
    • Brain
    • Midbrain
    • Substantia Nigra
  • WHEN: Average age of onset= 62.5 years young
  • WHY: Dunno…Related to unknown death of dopamine- generating cells in the CNS

Average incidence: 20/100,000 in North America

1 Million Affected in the United States

Average of 50,000 new cases each year in the U.S

More than $5.6 billion spent each year for research

movement disorders
Movement Disorders
  • Involuntary Shaking
  • Muscle Rigidity
  • Slowness in Walking and Swallowing
  • Varies with Different Stages of Parkinson's Disease
neurological disorders
Neurological Disorders
  • Depression
  • Sensory Problems
  • Sleeping Disorders
  • Emotional Changes
characteristic disorders
Characteristic Disorders

Smaller Handwritings

Decreased Facial Expression

Unclear Pronunciation

stages of parkinson s
Stages of Parkinson's
  • One: Normal; lives independently
  • Two: Takes twice as long to do chores; can live independently
  • Three: Some dependency; able to do most chores.
  • Four: Very dependent; able to assist in chores
  • Five: 100% dependent; litte to none ability to do chore
  • Six: Unable to swallow; bladder and bowel dysfunction; in bed or wheelchair
pd as a polygenetic disease
PD as a Polygenetic Disease

Genetics/Environmental Components

genetic component
Genetic Component
  • Defective Alpha-Synuclein Gene may be related to the cause of Parkinson’s Disease in some cases
  • Mutation in Parkin Gene is one of the reason for high incidence of early onset in China (One of the focuses of Professor Liu’s research)
  • Accumulation of mitochondrial oxidative stress and abnormal proteins= impaired dopaminergic neurons
  • Parkingene’s function: activates self- repair mechanism in the mitochondria
  • Mortalin: molecular chaperon located primarily in the mitochondria for mitochondrial homeostasis
  • PD= Parkin gene mutation + reduced levels of mortalin in brain regions of PD patients.
  • Adverse effects of mitochondrial dysfunction result of dismantled mortalin and Parkin gene mutation
  • Parkin gene overexpression prevents mitochondrial dysfunctions?
materials methods
  • Monitored MMP, ROS, mtDNA copy numbers to determine the role of mortalin and Parkin gene under H2O2 induced settings
  • Stained HeLa cells with MTG to determine the effects of reduced levels of mortalin on mitochondria
  • Cell culture, transfection, immunofluorescence etc.
  • Adverse Effects
    • Disintegration of mitochondrial connectivity
    • Low branching of mitochondria
    • Impaired interaction between Parkin gene and mortalin interferes with the protective role of Parkin gene
  • Parkin gene overexpression prevent mitochondrial dysfunctions?
    • YES!!!!!
environmental component
Environmental Component
  • Consumption of illegal drug that contains MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)
  • Severe cases of influenza during the early twentieth century

Levodopa (Gold Standard)

Dopamine Agonist

COMT Inhibitors


Physical Therapy


current research
Current Research

Gene Therapy

Stem Cell Transplantion

Neuroprotective Agents

the end
The End

Thanks very much for your attention and good luck to my Grandpapa!!

works cited
Works Cited

"香港柏金遜症基金會 - Hong Kong Parkinson's Disease Foundation." 香港柏金遜症基金 - Hong Kong Parkinson's Disease Foundation. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <>.

Professor Liu Wen . Shanghai Medical College

"The Genetics of Parkinson's Disease." Biology @ Davidson. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <>.

"Parkinson's Disease Center: Symptoms, Treatments, Causes, Tests, Diagnosis, and Prognosis." WebMD - Better Information. Better Health. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <>.

Staff, Mayo Clinic. "Parkinson's Disease -" Mayo Clinic. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <>.