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Object Oriented Analysis and Design

Object Oriented Analysis and Design

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Object Oriented Analysis and Design

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  1. Object Oriented Analysis and Design Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD)

  2. Introduction • Evolution of Programming Languages • Assembly/Machine Languages • Formula Translation • Procedural Programming • Structured Programming • Functional Programming • Logic Programming • Programming with abstract data types • Evolution of Software Design • Monolithic ---> Modular

  3. Design Principles  Modularity • Abstraction • Focus only on relevant properties • Decomposition • Divide software into separately named and addressable modules • Encapsulation • Group related things together. • Information Hiding • Hide implementation details from the outside • Separation of Concerns • Ensure that each module only deals with one concern • Low Coupling • aim for low coupling among the modules • High Cohesion • aim for high cohesion within one module

  4. What is a Concern? • Are properties or areas of interest • Can be functional or nonfunctional (quality, systemic) • At different abstraction levels: • Problem domain concerns vs. solution domain concerns • Requirements vs. design • Design vs. implementation

  5. Separation of Concerns • The ability to identify, encapsulate and manipulate concerns • A key principle of SW engineering • Concerns are primary criteria for decomposing SW

  6. Separation of Concerns (Cont.) “clean” separation can help: • Reduce complexity, improve comprehensibility • Simplify evolution of SW • Local, easy changes • Smaller impact of change • Facilitate reuse • developers aren’t burdened by extraneous parts • Simplify component integration

  7. Dijkstra: Separate Program in Layers... • E. W. Dijkstra (1968-2002): • ‘’...Correct arrangement of the structure of software systems before simple programming...‘’ • Layered Structure • Programs are grouped into layers • Programs in one layer can only communicate with programs in adjoining layers • Conceptual integrity • Each layer has its own goal • With easier development and maintenance

  8. Parnas - Design Principles for Decomposition • Information hiding modules (1972) • Identify design decisions that are likely to change • Isolate these in separate modules (separation of concerns) • Different design decisions might require different decompositions. • D. Parnas, "On the Criteria to Be Used in Decomposing Systems into Modules.“, Comm. ACM 15, 12 (December 1972), 1053-1058. 1972.

  9. Separation of Concerns applied • Separate software development into phases each dealing with specific activities (e.g. requirements, analysis, design, implementation) • Separation of different artifacts: class, subsystems, attributes. • Separation of different design views (static, dynamic, implementation, ...) • Separation of different roles • ...

  10. Benefits of Separation of Concerns • Supports high cohesion among components • Supports low coupling among components • Increases modularity

  11. Advantages of Separation of Concerns • Understandability • Maintainability • Extensibility • Reusability • Adaptability • Separation of Concerns directly supports quality factors. • Lack of separation of concerns directly negatively impact quality factors.

  12. Example - Figure Editor • A figure consists of several figure elements. A figure element is either a point or a line. Figures are drawn on Display. A point includes X and Y coordinates. A line is defined as two points.

  13. Display * Figure FigureElement Point Line 2 getX() getY() getP1 setP1 setX(int) setY(int) setP1(Point) setP2(Point) Example - Figure Editor - Design • Components are • Cohesive • Loosely Coupled • Have well-defined interfaces (abstraction, encapsulation) Nice Modular Design!

  14. DisplayTracking Crosscutting Concern - Example Notify ScreenManager if a figure element moves Display * Figure FigureElement Point Line 2 getX() getY() getP1 setP1 setX(int) setY(int) setP1(Point) setP2(Point)

  15. Crosscutting Concern Display * Figure FigureElement Point Line 2 getX() getY() getP1 setP1 setX(int) setY(int) setP1(Point) setP2(Point) Example: Display Tracking DisplayTracker class DisplayTracker { static void updatePoint(Point p) { this.display(p); .... } static void updateLine(Line l) { this.display(l); .... } class Point { void setX(int x) { DisplayTracker.updatePoint(this); this.x = x; } } class Line { void setP1(Point p1 { DisplayTracker.updateLine(this); this.p1 = p1; } }

  16. Display * Figure FigureElement Point Line 2 getX() getY() getP1 setP1 setX(int) setY(int) setP1(Point) setP2(Point) Example - Tracing - Design Trace the execution of all operations... Tracer traceEntry traceExit Tracing

  17. Display * Figure FigureElement Point Line 2 getX() getY() getP1 setP1 Tracer.traceEntry(“Entry Line.set”); Tracer.traceEntry(“Entry Point.set”); setX(int) setY(int) setP1(Point) setP2(Point) Tracer.traceExit(“Exit Line.set”); Tracer.traceExit(“Exit Point.set”); Example - Tracing Scattered Concern Tangling Code Tracer class Tracer { static void traceEntry(String str) { System.out.println(str); } static void traceExit(String str) { System.out.println(str); } } class Point { void setX(int x) { _x = x; } } class Line { void setP1(Point p1 { _p1 = p1; } }

  18. Crosscutting Concerns • Concerns that naturally tend to be scattered over multiple components • Which connot be localized into single units (components, objects, procedures, functions)... • If not appropriately coped with: • Scattered over multiple components • Tangled code per component

  19. Crosscutting, Scattering and Tangling • Crosscutting • Concern that inherently relates to multiple components • Results in scattered concern and tangled code • Scattering • Single concern affects multiple modules • Tangling • Multiple concerns are interleaved in a single module

  20. The Cost of Crosscutting Concerns • Reduced understandability • Redundant code in many places • Non-explicit structure • Decreased adaptability • Have to find all the code involved • Have to be sure to change it consistently • Have to be sure not to break it by accident • New concerns cannot be easily added • Decreased reusability • Component code is tangled with specific tangling code • Decreased maintainability • ‘Ripple effect’

  21. Example of Crosscutting Concerns • Synchronization • Real-time constraints • Error-checking • Object interaction constraints • Memory management • Persistency • Security • Caching • Logging • Monitoring • Testing • Domain specific optimization • ...

  22. Many crosscutting concerns may appear in one system • Example: Distributed System Design • Component interaction • Synchronization • Remote invocation • Load balancing • Replication • Failure handling • Quality of service • Distributed transactions

  23. What to Do...?

  24. Historical Context • Crosscutting concerns are new type of concerns that have not been (appropriately) detected/handled before. • No explicit management until recently at programming level • No explicit consideration in design methods • No explicit consideration in process • No explicit consideration in case tools

  25. Aspect-Oriented Software Development • Provides better separation of concerns by explicitly considering crosscutting concerns (as well) • Does this by providing explicit abstractions for representing crosscutting concerns, i.e. aspects • And composing these into programs, i.e. aspect weaving or aspect composing. • As such AOSD improves modularity • And supports quality factors such as • Maintainability • Adaptability • Reusability • Understandability • ...

  26. Impact of AOSD on Society... • MIT Technology Review lists AOP as one of the top 10 emerging technologies that will change the world • –(MIT Technology Review, January 2001)

  27. Basic AOSD Technologies • Composition Filters (since 1991) • University of Twente, The Netherlands • AspectJ (since 1997) • XEROX PARC, US • DemeterJ/DJ (1993) • Northeastern University, US • Multi-dimensional separation of Concerns/HyperJ (1999)

  28. History of AOP languages Scripts (Francez 81) OO languages MOP(1985) Reflection(Smith 81) AI (semanticnetworks 79) Sinainterface predicates(1988) Law of Demeter(1988) CLOS-MOP Adaptiveprogramming(1992) Composition Filters(1992) Crosscuttingaspects (1996) AspectJ(1997) Composition Filterswith superimposition(2001) AspectJ(2000) http://trese.cs.utwente.nl

  29. AspectJ • A general purpose AO programming language • just as Java is a general-purpose OO language • unlike examples in ECOOP’97 paper • domain specific languages for each aspect • an integrated extension to Java • accepts all java programs as input • outputs .class files compatible with any JVM • integrated with tools

  30. Example – Without AOP class Line { private Point _p1, _p2; Point getP1() { return _p1; } Point getP2() { return _p2; } void setP1(Point p1) { Tracer.traceEntry(“entry setP1”); _p1 = p1; Tracer.traceExit(“exit setP1”); } void setP2(Point p2) { Tracer.traceEntry(“entry setP2”); _p2 = p2; Tracer.traceExit(“exit setP2”); } class Point { privateint _x = 0, _y = 0; int getX() { return _x; } int getY() { return _y; } void setX(int x) { Tracer.traceEntry(“entry setX”); _x = x; Tracer.traceExit(“exit setX”) } void setY(int y) { Tracer.traceEntry(“exit setY”); _y = y; Tracer.traceExit(“exit setY”); } } class Tracer { static void traceEntry(String str) { System.out.println(str); } static void traceExit(String str) { System.out.println(str); } } Tangling Code Scattered Concern

  31. Example – With AOP class Line { private Point _p1, _p2; Point getP1() { return _p1; } Point getP2() { return _p2; } void setP1(Point p1) { _p1 = p1; } void setP2(Point p2) { _p2 = p2; } } class Point { privateint _x = 0, _y = 0; int getX() { return _x; } int getY() { return _y; } void setX(int x) { _x = x; } void setY(int y) { _y = y; } } aspectTracing { pointcut traced(): call(* Line.* || call(* Point.*); before(): traced() { println(“Entering:” + thisjopinpoint); voidprintln(String str) {<write to appropriate stream>} } } Aspect is defined in a separate module Crosscutting is localized No scattering; No tangling Improved modularity

  32. Aspect Language Elements • join point (JP) model • certain principled points in program execution such as method calls, field accesses, and object construction • means of identifying JPs • picking out join points of interest (predicate) • pointcuts: set of join points • means of specifying behavior at JPs • what happens • advice declarations

  33. Display * Figure FigureElement Point Line 2 getX() getY() getP1 setP1 setX(int) setY(int) setP1(Point) setP2(Point) Modularizing Crosscutting • Joinpoints: any well-defined point of execution in a program such as method calls, field accesses, and object construction • Pointcut: predicate on joinpoints selecting a collection of joinpoints. Tracer pointcut traced(): call(* Line.*) || call(* Point.*);

  34. Joinpoints • method call join points • when a method is called • method reception join points • when an object receives a message • method execution join points • when the body of code for an actual method executes • field get joint point • when a field is accessed • field set joint point • when a field is set • exception handler execution join point • when an exception handler executes • object creation join point • when an instance of a class is created

  35. Some primitive pointcuts • call(Signature) • picks out method or constructor call based on Signature • execution(Signature) • picks out a method or constructor execution join point based on Signature • get(Signature) • picks out a field get join point based on Signature • set(Signature) • picks out a field set join point based on Signature • handles(TypePattern) • picks out an exception handler of any of the Throwable types of TypePattern • instanceOf(ClassName) • picks out join points of currently executing objects of class ClassName • within(ClassName) • picks out join points that are in code contained in ClassName • withinCode(Signature) • picks out join points within the member defined by methor or constructor (Signature) • cflow(pointcut) • picks out all the join points in the control flow of the join points picked out by the pointcut

  36. Advice • Piece of code that attaches to a pointcut and thus injects behavior at all joinpoints selected by that pointcut. • example: before (args): pointcut { Body } where before represents a before advice type (see next slide). • Can take parameters with pointcuts

  37. Advice JP JP Advice Advice JP Advice Types Advice code executes • before, code is injected before the joinpoint before (args): pointcut { Body } • after, code is injected after the joinpoint after (args): pointcut { Body } • around, code is injected around (in place of) code from joinpoint ReturnType around (args): pointcut { Body }

  38. Aspect • A modular unit of cross-cutting behavior. • Like a class, can have methods, fields, initializers. • can be abstract, inherit from classes and abstract aspects and implement interfaces. • encapsulates pointcuts and advices • can introduce new methods / fields to a class AspectX AspectX classX x classY AspectY AspectY

  39. pointcut advice Example - AspectJ class Line { private Point _p1, _p2; Point getP1() { return _p1; } Point getP2() { return _p2; } void setP1(Point p1) { _p1 = p1; } void setP2(Point p2) { _p2 = p2; } } class Point { privateint _x = 0, _y = 0; int getX() { return _x; } int getY() { return _y; } void setX(int x) { _x = x; } void setY(int y) { _y = y; } } aspectTracing { pointcut traced(): call(* Line.* || call(* Point.*); before(): traced() { println(“Entering:” + thisjopinpoint); after(): traced() { println(“Exit:” + thisjopinpoint); voidprintln(String str) {<write to appropriate stream>} } } aspect

  40. Code Weaving • Before compile-time (pre-processor) • During compile-time • After compile-time • At load time • At run-time

  41. Example - AspectJ aspect MoveTracking { privatestatic boolean _flag = false; publicstatic boolean testAndClear() { boolean result = _flag; _flag = false; return result; } pointcut moves(): receptions(void Line.setP1(Point)) || receptions(void Line.setP2(Point)); static after(): moves() { _flag = true; } }

  42. DemeterJ / DJ Law Of Demeter Each unit should only have limited knowledge about other units: only about units “closely” related to the current unit. “Each unit should only talk to its friends.” “Don’t talk to strangers.” Goal: Reduce behavioral dependencies between classes. Loose coupling

  43. Applying LoD • A method must be able to traverse links to obtain its neighbors and must be able to call operations on them. • But it should not traverse a second link from the neighbor to a third class. • Methods should communicate only with preferred suppliers: • immediate parts on this • objects passed as arguments to method • objects which are directly created in method • objects in global variables • No other calls allowed • ---> Scattering

  44. Solution is Adaptive Programming • Encapsulate operation into one place thereby avoiding scattering • Specify traversal over (graph) structure in a succinct way thereby reducing tangling. • Navigation strategy

  45. Adaptive Programming: Demeter • Adaptive Programming: references to other objects are replaced by traversal strategies for the class graph • Methods become less brittle with regard to changes in the class structure

  46. Adaptive Programming: Demeter (cont.) • Instance of AOP [Lieberherr92] • Aspects are traversal strategies • Separate the program text and the class structure • Program is independent of class graph • Accomplish tasks by traversals • Specification for what parts of received object should be traversed • Code fragments for what to execute when specific object types are encountered

  47. Object Traversals • The heart of Adaptive Programming is object traversals • Traversal code is tedious to write • Traversal code should not obstruct the view of the “real” program logic

  48. Use of Visitors import edu.neu.ccs.demeter.dj.*; // define strategy String strategy=“from BusRoute through BusStop to Person” class BusRoute { // define class graph static Classgraph cg = new ClassGraph(); int printCountWaitingPersons(){ // traversal/visitor weaving //define visitor Visitor v = new Visitor() public void before(Person host){ r++; … } public void start() { r = 0;} … } cg.traverse(this, strategy, v); ...}

  49. Advantages of DJ • Use of reflection • No need for source code (no code weaving) • Can work on class files • Purely Java (no new structure)

  50. Conclusion • Crosscutting concerns are typically scattered over several modules and result in tangled code. • This reduces the modularity and as such the quality of the software system. • AOSD provides explicit abstractions mechanisms to represent these so-called aspects and compose these into programs • This increases the modularity of systems.