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Sickle Cell Anemia. Chisom Amaefuna Adeline Laurente 1/29/10 Period 2. Summary. Sickle cell anemia is a genetic blood disease due to an abnormal form of a hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the molecule in the red blood cell that transports oxygen from lungs to the farthest parts of the body

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Sickle cell anemia

Sickle Cell Anemia

Chisom Amaefuna

Adeline Laurente

1/29/10

Period 2


Summary
Summary

  • Sickle cell anemia is a genetic blood disease due to an abnormal form of a hemoglobin.

  • Hemoglobin is the molecule in the red blood cell that transports oxygen from lungs to the farthest parts of the body

  • Symptoms of sickle cell anemia include:

  • Paleness of the skin

  • Weakness

  • Shortness of breath

  • Heart failure

  • Fact:

  • Sickle cell anemia is more common in middle eastern countries, Africa, Spanish-speaking countries


Chromosomes

Chromosomes

Sickle Cell Anemia is located in

CHROMOSOME 11


Inheritance of sickle cell anemia
Inheritance of Sickle Cell Anemia

-Sickle cell is inherited in an Autosomal recessive pattern.

-autosomal recessive-Genetic condition that appears only in individuals who have received two copies of an autosomal Gene

-The gene is on an autosome, a nonsex chromosome

-People with one defective gene and one normal gene are carriers


Alleles
Alleles

  • Alleles are another form of genes that are located on a part of the chromosomes

  • Humans have 2 alleles per gene

  • Heterozygous has one dominant and one recessive allele

  • Homozygous has either two dominant or two recessive alleles

  • Heterozygous: Rr

  • Homozygous: RR or rr

  • Recessive is when both parents have a normal gene and a affected one. The parents will be carriers but not affected. Their offspring however will either be affected, not affected, or a carrier.


Punnett squares
Punnett squares

S

S

S

s

Homozygous

Dominant

S

S

s

S

Heterozygous

s

s

S

s

S

S

Homozygous

Recessive

s

s


Probability of punnett squares
Probability of Punnett squares

RATIOS

PERCENTAGES

25% SS: 50% Ss: 25% ss

S s

S SS Ss

s Ss ss


Genotype and phenotype
Genotype and Phenotype

GENOTYPE

What is in the GENES

S represents dominant allele GREEN

s represents recessive allele yellow

SS=homozygous dominant (GREEN)

Ss= heterozygous dominant (GREEN)

ss= homozygous recessive (yellow)

25%: 50% : 25%

Normal to carrier to affected

PHENOTYPE

What you can SEE

SS= GREEN

Ss= Green (yellow gene carrier)

s= yellow

3:1

Normal to affected


Genotype and phenotype probablilty
Genotype and Phenotype Probablilty

Genotype

Phenotype

Ratio

1SS: 2Ss: 1ss

Percentage

SS 25%: Ss 50%: ss 25%

Ratio

3 normal: 1 affected

Percentage

75% normal: 25% affected


Student practice with punnett squares
Student Practice with Punnett Squares

s

s

Genotype:

Ratio: 4Ss

Percentage: 100%

Phenotype:

Ratio: 4 carriers

Percentage: All children will be carriers but not affected

S

S


Pedigree

Pedigree

KEY

CIRCLE- FEMALE

SQUARE- male

White- normal

Red-affected

HALF- CARRIER


Student practice with pedigree

Student Practice with Pedigree

1. Why don’t any of the second generation children have full sickle cell anemia?

2. How many people in this pedigree are carriers of sickle cell anemia?

3. How many people in this pedigree show no symptoms of sickle cell anemia?