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O H B O Y , O H B O Y!!. WELCOME TO THE WORLD OF CHEMICAL BONDING!. Compounds and Bonding. The atoms of the elements we have been studying often join together to form chemical compounds. Some examples of compounds include water and table salt. But what is a compound, anyway?.

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o h b o y o h b o y

OH BOY, OHBOY!!

WELCOME TO THE WORLD OF CHEMICAL BONDING!

compounds and bonding
Compounds and Bonding
  • The atoms of the elements we have been studying often join together to form chemical compounds.
  • Some examples of compounds include water and table salt.
but what is a compound anyway
But what is a compound, anyway?
  • A compound is a substance that is composed of atoms of 2 or more different elements that are chemically combined.
  • The properties of a compound are different from those of its individual elements.
so how and why do atoms combine and what is it that holds the atoms together in compounds
So how and why do atoms combine, and what is it that holds the atoms together in compounds?
  • Atoms combine with other atoms only when conditions are right, and they do so only to become more stable.
  • An atom becomes stable when its outer most energy level is full with electrons.
filling energy levels
FILLING ENERGY LEVELS:
  • Electrons travel around the nucleus in energy levels.
  • Each energy level has a limited capacity for electrons.
  • The first level can hold 2 electrons, and the second level can hold 8 electrons.
  • For example, oxygen has a total of 8 electrons. Two fill the first energy level and the remaining 6 occupy the second level.
okay but how do elements fill their energy levels to become stable
Okay…but how do elements fill their energy levels to become stable?
  • By sharing electrons with atoms of other elements.
  • By gaining or losing electrons in their outer energy levels.
  • The first way of sharing electrons is called covalent bonding. The second way is called ionic bonding.
covelant bonding
COVELANT BONDING:
  • These are bonds formed by atoms sharing electrons.
  • Each pair of electrons shared is the equivalent of 1 covelant bond.
  • Most compounds in organisms have covelant bonds. Examples are sugars, fats, proteins, water.
ionic bonding
IONIC BONDING:
  • Bonds formed when atoms gain or lose electrons in their outer energy level.
  • An atom that gains or loses electrons and has a charge is known as an ion.
  • Therefore, the attractive force between two ions of opposite charge is known as an ionic bond.
example of ionic bonding
Example of ionic bonding:
  • A sodium atom has 11 electrons—meaning 1 is in the 3rd energy level.
  • A chlorine atom has 17 electrons—with 7 in its outer level.
  • So, when they combine, sodium loses one electron and chlorine gains the electron.
ionic compounds in living things
Ionic compounds in Living Things:
  • Ionic compounds are less abundant in living things than are covelant molecules, but ions are important in biological processes.
  • For example, sodium and potassium ions are required for the transmission of nerve impulses, and calcium ions are necessary for muscles to contract.