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Chapter 4: Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 4: Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

Chapter 4: Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

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Chapter 4: Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

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  1. Chapter 4: Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity Jen Lubelchek Period 6

  2. Sweets are a biological aspect of taste that humans prefer

  3. At 8 months we begin to fear strangers

  4. 3 universal behaviors of humans EATING DANCING DRINKING

  5. Define behavior genetics • Behavior genetics: the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.

  6. Define environment • Environment: every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.

  7. “Thanks for almost everything Dad”: A child receives genes from their parents

  8. Every cell nucleus contains the genetic master code for one’s entire body

  9. Define DNA DNA: a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

  10. Define chromosome Chromosome: threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

  11. Define genome Genome: the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes

  12. Everybody in the world can have similar genetics because we all come from the same two people

  13. Define identical twins • Identical twins: twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms

  14. Define fraternal twins Fraternal twins: twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment

  15. Identical vs. Fraternal twins

  16. Fraternal twins are not any more similar than ordinary brother and sister

  17. Identical twins have a greater chance of getting the same disease as their twin than fraternal twins do

  18. Matt McGue and David Lykken (1992) study on divorce rates among 1500 same-sex, middle-aged twin pairs: • Identical twins have a greater chance to divorce if their twin has divorced than fraternal twins. • This shows that genetics play a big role because identical twins have more similarities than fraternal twins

  19. Genes matter when explaining individual differences

  20. Explain 3 similarities between Jim Lewis and Jim Springer? Jim Lewis and Jim Springer were virtually the same person when it came to their intelligence, heart rate, and personalities

  21. 3 similarities between Oskar Stohr and Jack Yufe • They were raised in different environments, but they both flushed the toilet before using it, dipped their buttered toast in their coffee, and liked spicy foods • This demonstrates how vital genes are in determining the person that will be. Although these twins were raised in different environments, their genetics played a huge role in showing their similarities

  22. Bouchard’s quote, “In some domains it looks as though our identical twins reared apart are… just as similar as identical twins reared together. Now that’s an amazing finding and I can assure you none of us would have expected that degree of similarity.” • This quote demonstrates the power of nature

  23. Bouchard’s critics theory • Data is anecdotal • Similarities tend to be common

  24. Twin study results give us a greater appreciation for nature • Identical twins have the exact same genes and help the psychology community learn the great power of our genetics and true nature

  25. Difference between genetic and environmental relatives: • Genetic relatives are our parents and siblings • Environmental relatives are adoptive parents and siblings

  26. Common Genetic Traits: • EXTRAVERSION • AGREEABLENESS

  27. Environment impacts personality

  28. 5 ways parents impact their children • Attitudes • Values • Manners • Faith • Politics

  29. “Mom may be holding a full house while Dad has a straight flush, yet when Junior gets a random half of each of their cards his poker hand may be a loser.” • This quote is questioning if things are predestined to happen to people • Quote by David Lykken

  30. adopted children thrive for two reason: • No Child neglect • Parent divorce is rare

  31. children benefits from adoption • 7/8 adopted children report strong attachment to adopted parents • Adopted children tend to be more altruistic than average • Adopted children grow into happier adults

  32. Define temperament • Temperament: a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

  33. Easy vs. Difficult Babies

  34. Temperament persists over time.

  35. 1 piece of evidence that adds to the emerging conclusion that our biologically rooted temperament helps form our enduring personality: • An impulsive 3 year old becomes a conflicted 21 year old • Temperament and personality are linked

  36. Define heritability • Heritability: a portion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.

  37. Heritability and Environment • If environments were all similar, heritability would increase. • When environments drastically differ heritability decreases

  38. Self regulating genes • Self regulating genes: the concept that genes react different to experiences

  39. Eating Disorderes • Eating disorders are a western phenomenon • Also, some people may be genetically predisposed to eating disorders

  40. Define gene- environment interaction: • Gene environment interaction: the interplay between environment and heredity

  41. “Heredity deals the cards; environment plays the hand.” • Life allows you, through hard work, to change your cards • Environment plays a big role in expressing one’s genes

  42. nature versus nurture • NATURE VIA NURTURE • The two work together

  43. Define molecular genetics • Molecular genetics: the subfield of biology that studies the function of genes

  44. goal of molecular behavior genetics: • To find human traits such as body weight

  45. There are “missing women” in India and China • In China and India couples often abort their daughters because when a woman marries she has to give a cash gift to the husband from the parent • Some couples would rather have sons in order to save money, and when the son begins to work they will give their parents money

  46. Define evolutionary psychology • Evolutionary psychology: the study of how our behavior and mind have changed in adaptive ways over time using principles of natural selection

  47. Define natural- selection • Natural Selection: the adaptive process; among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations CHARLES DARWIN

  48. Belyeavand Trut’s study on foxes • Foxes were wild. Researchers picked tamest foxes, had them mate over 40 years and the foxes became domesticated

  49. Trait Selection • When certain traits are selected, they will prevail over time

  50. Define mutation • Mutation: random error in gene replication that leads to change