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Remembering the seven dwarfs RECALL version

Remembering the seven dwarfs RECALL version

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Remembering the seven dwarfs RECALL version

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  1. Remembering the seven dwarfsRECALL version Introduce students to basic concepts in memory

  2. What Is Memory?Chapter 8

  3. Activity • Take out a blank sheet of paper and listen to my instructions carefully. You will have 1 minute to complete this exercise. • Miserandino, M. (1991). Memory and… Teaching of Psychology, 18, 169-171.

  4. Activity • Write down the names of the seven dwarfs • Miserandino, M. (1991). Memory and… Teaching of Psychology, 18, 169-171.

  5. Activity • Answers: • Grumpy, • Sleepy, • Sneezy, • Bashful, Dopey, • Happy, • Doc • Miserandino, M. (1991). Memory and… Teaching of Psychology, 18, 169-171.

  6. Discussion • You were asked to recall the names of the Seven Dwarfs in the Snow White fairy tale. Most of you are familiar with the story, and may have even seen a movie of the story, yet some of you couldn’t remember all seven names accurately. • So why was this difficult or easy?

  7. Arkinson and Shiffrin’s Classic Three-Stage Processing Model of Memory

  8. What is Memory? • The ability to remember things we have experienced, imagined, or learned • Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time. • It is our ability to store and retrieve information.

  9. Information Processing in Simplistic Terms Monitor (Retrieval) Disk (Storage) Keyboard (Encoding) Sequential Process

  10. Atkinson and Schiffrin (1968)3 Stages Information Processing Frank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/ Corbis Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works

  11. How Does Information Processing Work

  12. Sensory Memory • Sensory Memory • First stop for ALL information • They are large in size • Information stays here for a short period of time • Visual Register- holds images, or icons, that represent all aspects of a visual image • visual image last about ¼ second • Auditory Register- holds echoes of sound • echoes can last up to several seconds

  13. Iconic 0.5 sec. long Echoic 3-4 sec. long Hepatic < 1 sec. long Sensory Memories The duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses.

  14. What We Encode • Encoding by meaning (semantic) • Encoding by images • Encoding by organization

  15. Encoding Meaning Processing the meaning of verbal information by associating it with what we already know or imagine. Encoding meaning (semantic encoding) results in better recognition later than visual or acoustic encoding.

  16. Visual Encoding Mental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. Both photos: Ho/AP Photo Showing adverse effects of tanning and smoking in a picture may be more powerful than simply talking about it.

  17. Working Memory A version of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

  18. Long Term Memory • Everything that is learned is stored in long-term memory • Capacity of long-term memory • Vast amounts of information may be stored for many years • No known limits to capacity

  19. Storing Implicit & Explicit Memories Explicit Memoryrefers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. Implicit memory involves learning an action while the individual does not know or declare what she knows.

  20. Memory Storage and Time

  21. Where is it Stored?

  22. Which of the following processes is likely to result in the best memory for words? • A. visual encoding • B. acoustic encoding • C. rote memorization • D. semantic encoding

  23. Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin’s classic three-stage model of memory includes all of the following, EXCEPT: • A. short-term memory. • B. long-term memory. • C. flashbulb memory. • D. sensory memory.