Physics and metaphysics. Aigars Atvars, DOC- 2007 28.04.2007.
Science Technical Skills Philosophy Theology 2000 B.C. 0 1000 A.C. 2000 A.C.
Physics Physics, Wikipedia, (20.04.2007.) Physics (Greek: φύσις (phúsis), "nature" and φυσικῆ (phusiké), "knowledge of nature") is the science concerned with the fundamental laws of the universe. Physics studies the elementary constituents of the universe - matter, energy, space, and time—and their interactions; it also analyzes systems best understood in terms of these fundamental principles.
Metaphysics, origins (?) Metaphysics, Wikipedia, (20.04.2007.) Book “Philosophy” Book ”Physics” Aristotle τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά βιβλια or, "the books that come after the [books on] physics." Latin Scholars: "the science of what is beyond the physical.“ The editor of Aristotle works, Andronicus of Rhodes, Metaphysics
Metaphysics. the philosophical study whose object is to determine the real nature of things—to determine the meaning, structure, and principles of whatever is insofar as it is. Metaphysics, Britannica Online, http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9108718/metaphysics (20.04.2007.)
Aristotle: tasks of philosopher to investigate the nature and properties of what exists in the natural, or sensible, world explore the characteristics of “Being as such” and to inquire into the character of “the substance that is free from movement,” or the most real of all things, the intelligible reality on which everything in the world of nature was thought to be causally dependent. “second philosophy” Physica “first philosophy”, Metaphysica Theology Not much difference because lack of experiments
metaphysics as: (1) an inquiry into what exists, or what really exists its business is to subject common opinion on this matter to critical scrutiny and in so doing to determine what is truly real. # Are dream objects real? # Are numbers real? # Is fence a substance or simply wood and metal shaped in a certain way?
metaphysics as:(2) the science of reality, as opposed to appearance • distinguish between the real size of the Sun and its apparent size • between the real colour of an object (when seen in standard conditions) and its apparent colour (nonstandard conditions) • task of the metaphysician is to challenge all assumptions and finally arrive at an account of the nature of things that is fully coherent and fully thought-out • (what to do with changing objects ?)
metaphysics as:(3) the study of the world as a whole; • it has to do with the world as a whole. • Metaphysics cannot be satisfactorily understood as an account of the world as a whole if that description suggests that the metaphysician is a sort of superscientist, unlimited in his curiosity and gifted with a capacity for putting together other people's findings with a skill and imagination that none of them individually commands. Only a scientist could hope to become such a superscientist.
Metaphysics and other branches of philosophy Metaphysics ? ? Ethics Logic
Problems in metaphysics • Forms • Categories and universals • Basic particulars • The existence of God • The soul–body relationship • The mind–body relationship • The reality of material things • The organizing principles of nature • Space and time • The conception of spirit
Types of metaphysical theory • Platonism • Aristotelianism • Thomism • Cartesianism • Idealism • Materialism Tendencies in contemporary metaphysics • John Dewey • William James • Edmund Husserl and Phenomenology • The Existentialists • The thought of Whitehead The College of Metaphysical Studies, http://www.cms.edu/generaled.html, (23.04.2007.)
Criticisms of metaphysics • Metaphysics as knowledge of the supersensible • Hume • Kant • Logical Positivists • Moore and Wittgenstein • Religious philosophers
One of the oddities about philosophy is that it seems to be a heterogeneous subject without the unity that characterizes, say, economics or chemistry. • Among its subdisciplines, there is • Logic... • Esthetics ... • Ethics and political philosophy... • metaphysics, which seeks to identify the fundamental kinds of things that really exist.