Chapter 17 Therapies/Treatment. AP Outline Says: “Treatment of Psychological Disorders” Treatment Approaches Insight Therapies Psychodynamic Approaches Behavioral Approaches Cognitive Approaches Eclectic Approache Modes of Therapy – individual, group Community and Preventative Approaches.
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Chapter 17 Therapies/Treatment • AP Outline Says: • “Treatment of Psychological Disorders” • Treatment Approaches • Insight Therapies • Psychodynamic Approaches • Behavioral Approaches • Cognitive Approaches • Eclectic Approache • Modes of Therapy – individual, group • Community and Preventative Approaches
Main Areas • Psychodynamic Psychotherapy • Humanistic Therapy (Rogers/Maslow) • Client Centered Therapy • Gestalt Therapy • Behavior Therapy • Cognitive Behavior Therapy • Group Family Couples • Biological Treatments • Psycho Surgery • Electro Convulsive Therapy • Psychoactive Drugs
Fun Facts • 15% of adults • 21% children are receiving some form of treatment • $150 billion dollars a year is spent • Including disability and lost productivity • The most common targets of treatment are : • Anxiety • Mood disorders • Impulse control • Substance abuse • And combinations of those- Other not diagnosed problems Relationship conflicts Grief Divorce Retirement etc.
Basic Features of Treatment • Client/Patient • Therapist= Psychologists/Psychiatirsts • Clinical Social Workers • Marriage and Family Therapists • Licensed Professional Counselors • Inpatient- could be days, weeks in a hospital/clinical setting- usually with drug therapy • Usually pose a danger to themselves and others • Outpatient- psycho therapy and or drugs could be used • Less severe symptoms
Goals of Therapy • Change thinking, feelings, behavior • Impulse, functioning • Relieve Discomfort
Characteristics of Psychoanalysis • One on one (Client Therapist relationship is key) • Talk Therapy • Long Term duration • Look for relationship between an individual’s life history and current problems • Finding role of thoughts, emotions and motivation • Focus is to help gain insight • Goal is to get the patient to understand how past conflicts determine current problems
Psychodynamic Psycho Therapy • Freud • Conflicts Ego, ID, Superego • Unconscious • Personality • Psychoanalysis- • Goal to understand unconscious conflicts • And how they affect the client
Psychoanalysis continued Free Association • Patient talks about what is on their mind and is prompted by questioning from therapist • Therapist analyzes the potential components that give insight and helps the client understand the subconscious processes and conflicts • Transference • Unconscious process in which childhood feelings and conflicts about parents and other significant people were being transferred to the therapist
Psychodynamic Psychotherapy • Sigmund Freud • Psychoanalysis- method of psychotherapy aimed at revealing and resolving conflicts that are in the unconscious • Free Association • Resistance • Dream Interpretation • Freudian Slips • Transference • Contemporary Psychoanalysis • Less time and cost effective
Humanistic Therapy • See people as capable of consciously controlling their own actions and taking responsibility for their own decisions • Humanists believe most behavior is motivated by an innate drive toward personal growth and improvement • Behavior is guided by the way people perceive the world • Hence, Distorted perceptions blocks growth
Humanistic Therapy • Assumptions • Therapy tries to help clients restart their natural growth • Promotes insights into current feelings • Therapists try to create feelings with client • They try to show the client they are accepted, supported • Create a positive relationship with patient • Clients are shown that they are in charge of how they feel
Humanistic Psychotherapy • Carl Rogers • Humanistic Perspective- emphasizes striving for and reaching human potential • Humanistic Psychotherapy- Most important feature of a person is their self-concept and that disorders derive from unhealthy environments (growth is interfered or stopped). • Client-centered • Gestalt Therapy
Humanism- Client Centered Therapy • 1st create a relationship • Key is listening and understanding • Clients become more self confident • More accepting themselves • Use • Unconditional Positive Regard = acceptance • Help the client understand they themselves are worthy • Acceptance • Reinforce client’s ability to solve their own problems • Empathy • Therapists try to emotionally understand what a client might be thinking and feeling • Congruence (acting in ways that are consistent)
Gestalt Therapy Humanistic Psych • Seeks to create conditions in which clients become more self aware and accepting • They try to get clients to really know themselves
Behavior Therapy • Client Insight • Most psychological problems are learned behaviors that can be changed by taking action to learn new ones • (not searching for underlying causes)
Methods of Treatment • Two Main Types of Therapy • Psychotherapy- based on interaction between a trained therapist, using psychological techniques, and a client, who is experiencing emotional, behavioral, or interpersonal problems. • Biomedical Therapies- use medications, electroconvulsive therapy, or other medical procedures that directly affect the brain and nervous system of a patient experiencing symptoms associated with a psychological disorder.
Behavior Therapy • Behavior therapy- proposes that psychological problems originate from learned behaviors • Skinner, Pavlov, Ellis, Watson • Three versions: • 1) Behavior therapy using classical conditioning • 2) Behavior modification using operant conditioning • 3) Cognitive-behavior therapy addresses both thoughts and behaviors associated with the problem • Counterconditioning- the learning of a new conditioned response that is the opposite of the original learned response.
Behavior Therapy cont. • Systematic Desensitization- involves gradual learning of a new conditioned response that will replace, or inhibit, an established maladaptive response such as fear or anxiety • Anxiety Hierarchy • Flooding- constant exposure to the fear • Aversion Conditioning-involves pairing a harmful stimulus with an unpleasant stimulus • i.e. taking a pill before consuming alcohol that causes nausea.
Cognitive-Behavior Therapy • Cognitive behavioral therapy- utilizes learning principles to change people’s negative thought patterns • Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)- based on belief that distorted expectations and irrational beliefs contribute to psychological disorders • Psychologist Albert Ellis • “ABC”- Activating event, Belief, Consequences
Cognitive and Group Therapy • Cognitive therapy- based on the idea that people have developed cognitive distortions, distorted perceptions, and interpretations of events that contribute to psychological disorders (especially depression and anxiety) • Group Therapy- allows one or more therapists to work with several people at the same time, observing social and interaction skills. • Family Therapy • Marital/Couples Therapy
Biomedical Therapy • Psychosurgery- destroys tissue in regions of the brain for treating psychological disorders • Irreversible risky side effects • Electroconvulsive therapy- depressive patients who didn’t respond to drug treatments; brief electrical shock was thought to stimulate and increase neural activity in the brain, alleviating symptoms of depression and schizophrenia • Neuroleptics(antipsychotics)- used to treat psychotic symptoms related to positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations, delusions, disordered thinking, and confused thinking.
Biomedical Therapy • Antidepressants- prescribed to treat depression, increase the amount of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin • Anti-anxiety Medication- used to help people deal with anxiety • Valium and Xanax • Increases neurotransmitter GABA which reduce symptoms of anxiety, nervousness, and sleeping problems • Lithium- used to treat bipolar disorder • Used to alleviate manic and depressive symptoms of bipolar disorder
Community Psychology • Deinstitutionalization- process of releasing patients from hospitals, which in turn led to the shutting down of many mental health hospitals • Community Psychology- a movement to decrease or prevent psychological disorders through offerings in community mental health programs