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Female & Male Images In Media. Are media portrayals as harmful to men as to women?. Martin & Gentry (No). Social Comparison Theory Drive to evaluate own opinions & abilities leads us to compare ourselves to other people. Advertising imposes a “sense of inadequacy” on women

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Presentation Transcript


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Martin & Gentry (No)

  • Social Comparison Theory

  • Drive to evaluate own opinions & abilities leads us to compare ourselves to other people.


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Advertising

  • imposes a “sense of inadequacy” on women

  • creates & reinforces preoccupation with women’s physical attractiveness


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Cottle

  • Recent advertising trends are just as harmful to men

  • Unforgiving & unrealistic images

  • Men’s magazines encourage obsession with body image, aging & sexual prowess



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In the Beginning

Marky Mark 1993

Lucky the Diet Coke Hunk 1994




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Tough Guise

  • Men, masculinity & media



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Female advertising images

Video: “Killing Us Softly”

Jean Kilbourne


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Changing beauty standards

  • In 1957, Miss America was 5'7" and weighed 150 pounds.

  • The average modern Miss America:

  • 5’7''

  • 121 pounds




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After

Before



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Double Standard in Hollywood?

  • Percentage of women in the US who are 40 or older:

    42

  • Percentage of actresses appearing in movies in 2002 who were 39 or younger:

    78



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People Magazine article

  • What point is the article making?

  • Do you see any irony here?



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Children Now study:

  • Media exposes boys to narrow, confining definition of masculinity

  • Anger & violence solve problems

  • "Gender straightjacket" limits range of emotions allowed



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Video Games

  • Majority male characters (92% to 54%)

  • Female bodies exposed (38%)

  • Large breasts & small waists




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Sex, Lies & Women's Mags

  • Stories about sex are "tweaked"

  • Quotes changed / stories embellished / people made up

  • Why does this matter?

  • Are stories about sex "a formidable cultural force"?

  • Or just an entertaining diversion?


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Sex on TV (Kaiser Foundation Report)

  • More sexual content on TV now than ever before

  • Sexual behaviors

  • Talking about sex

  • Has it gone too far?

    http://www.parentstv.org/PTC/clips/main.asp


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Concerns about youth

  • TV informs youth about sex

  • TV shapes ideas about what others are doing

  • Who else does this?


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Context

  • Only 10% refer to risks or responsibilities of sex

  • More likely w/teen situations


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3rd person effect

  • TV sex influences other teens a lot or somewhat

72%

  • TV sex influences ME a lot or somewhat

22%


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The Porn Factor

  • Is pornography transforming sexuality & relationships for the worse?

  • Unrealistic expectations of appearance & performance

  • Difficulty forming sustaining relationships

  • Difficulty feeling sexually satisfied

  • Denigration of women


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  • Effects on children

  • (socialization by “eavesdropping”)

  • Correlations with aggressiveness & abuse

  • Erotica vs pornography