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Otto Von Bismarck C aim – to assess how Bismarck contributed to Second Reich B aim – to assess what long and short term impacts Bismarck had on the Second Reich A/A* aim – to assess the role of Bismarck in German history.

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Otto Von Bismarck C aim – to assess how Bismarck contributed to Second Reich B aim – to assess what long and short term impacts Bismarck had on the Second ReichA/A* aim – to assess the role of Bismarck in German history

1848 revolutions happened across Europe to get more democracy. It brought Germany together as many German states met in Frankfurt and wanted more democracy together.

1864 – Schleswig war. Bismark took over Schleswig as he wanted them to join the German Empire. He used the excuse of not approving of the new ruler.

1866 – Austro-Prussian War – Prussia won and there was a shift in European relations. They made peace rapidly which included Austria keeping its independence as Prussia didn’t want France or Russia to get involved.

1870-1871 – Franco-Prussia war, Prussia won. Siege of Paris. Didn’t want to take on ruling resistant France, or risk Russia getting involved. Triumph was enough.

  • Why did Germany take so long to unify? This map will give you a clue. Think of something other than trading!

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xj949U4QWuY&safe=active

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Chancellor of the German Empire 1871-1890 under King Wilhelm I, Friedirch III, Wilhelm II.

Conservative

Chosen by the Kaiser.

What does this office mean?

real politik
Real Politik
  • ‘realistic, practical or actual politics’
  • Refers to politics or diplomacy based primarily on practical and material factors and considerations rather than ideological, moralistic or ethical premises
  • Often associated with machiavellian techniques – from The Prince by Machiavelli in the 16th C – in this is a politician who is very cunning, amoral and opportunistic for his own aims
  • Bismark wanted Prussian dominance in Europe – so he manipulated issue such as the Schleswig-Holstein Question in order to start wars and gain land. He also adopted social policies like employee insurance to reduce the likelihood of a socialist revolution.
  • Can you find another example? Did Real Politik continue in German history?
foreign policy
Foreign Policy
  • 1875-1878 – in the Balkans there were nationalist uprisings against the Ottoman rulers. Bismark was worried if the Ottomans left Russia and Austria would have battled for power and Germany would have had to choose sides. Bismark drove a diplomatic agreement to avoid war where Austria and Russia agreed to divide up the Balklans if the Ottomans were defeated
  • Bismark formed an alliance with Austria in 1879 to strengthen it against France and Russia. Italy joined in 1882.
  • In 1885 war broke out in the Balkans. Germany was worried that Russia would attack Austria, the Austrians would call on Germany and then Russia and France would act on their alliance to attack Germany together. Bismark solved this by signing an agreement with Russia saying that they would not attack and secretly saying that Russia could have this land.
  • Initially Bismark was very much against imperialist expansion. In 1884 this changed due to rising nationalism and feeling that he did not want to be left out of the scramble for Africa.
kulturkampf
Kulturkampf
  • ‘struggle of civilisations’
  • Discrimination against Catholics – did not like the presence of another authority figure – the pope. 1870 the pope said there was ‘papal infallibility’ – which meant anything he said about catholicism was beyond question, even if this meant the King was disobeyed.
  • He worried that most Catholics lived in the South, which was less affected by German unity and could join with Austria
  • Catholics tended to oppose German unity anddidn’t want control over their church
  • Catholics refused to support national events
  • Oppose centre party – which represented the catholics from 1871
  • Falk Laws 1873 – Catholic Church controlled by the state, 1873-1876 Jesuits forced to leave Germany, Catholic schools supervised by the state and civil wedding ceremonies made compulsory
  • The Liberals, who were his main supporters until 1878 supported this policy of Kulturkampf and supported Bismark. When the liberals declined and the Centre Party dominated the Reichstag Bismarck abandedKulturkampf.
germanization
Germanization
  • Part of the ‘struggle of civilisations’
  • Jews and Poles were also targeted by Bismarck.
  • Jews and Poles with Russian citizenship forced to leave
  • 1886 – Settlement Law – German peasants encouraged to settle in Eastern Prussian provinces
  • Poles heavily discriminated against
  • Polish not taught in schools
  • Frence in alsace-Lorraine and Danes in Schleswig-Holstein also taught in German
sonderweg
Sonderweg
  • ‘special path’ – Wehler
  • From 1848 to the rise of Hitler
  • The middle classes, despite growing in wealth and economic importance did not gain more political power as Prussian landed elites dominated the army, civil service and government. This was aided by Bismarck.
  • After 1918 when this collapsed and democracy dominated by the middle-classes in positions of political power, the landed elites and turned to extremist groups – like Hitler
  • Economically modern but politically backward country had severe repercussions of the colonial expansion to distract them, for WWI and even for the rise of Hitler.
liberals
Liberals
  • Initially from 1871-1878 Bismarck relied on the support of the liberals.
  • Bismarck made sure he had policies they liked to do with unification – like Kulturkampf
  • Where they disagreed, like when in 1874 the liberals wanted an annual army budget and Bismarck wanted a seven yearly one, the liberals eventually agreed to a septennial budget after Bismarck threatened to resign and the Kaiser became involved
  • The liberals did not want a bill that Bismarck wanted restricting free trade and introducing high tarrifs in 1878 due to economic troubles. Bismarck dissolved the Reichstag. The Kaiser had assassination attempts in this time. When the Reichstag returned it was dominated by the Centrists and Conservatives, the liberals had declined, as had the socialists. There was universal male suffrage over 21. Bismarck now had to appeal to the right.
socialism
Socialism
  • Bismarck abandoned Kulturkampf and adopted more conservatives policies to appeal to the new Reichstag in 1878.
  • Bismarck wanted to stop the growing threat from socialists – so he introduced a restrictive law on them. It had the opposite effect.
  • Next he introduced sickness and accident insurance and pensions for over 70s and the disabled. This was to rob the Social Democrat Party of their support.
quick quiz
Quick Quiz!

What do these words mean...

  • Kulturkampf
  • Sonderweg
  • Germanization
  • Real Politik

Why is he called the iron chancellor?

Did Bismarck follow Real Politik? Give reasons for and against and your own judgement.

Is Wehler’s ‘Sonderweg’ thesis correct? Give reasons for and against and your own judgement.

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Otto Von Bismarck C aim – to assess how Bismarck contributed to Second Reich B aim – to assess what long and short term impacts Bismarck had on the Second ReichA/A* aim – to assess the role of Bismarck in German history

C – How did Bismarck contribute to the Second Reich?

B – What were the main short an long term impacts that Bismarck had?

A/A* - What has the role of Bismarck been in Germany History?

what events do these sources link with what do these sources show you about the bismarkian era
What events do these sources link with? What do these sources show you about the Bismarkian era?