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Lisa Schulke

Lisa Schulke

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Lisa Schulke

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  1. The Components of the System UnitChapter 4 Lisa Schulke

  2. What exactly is the System Unit? • A case that contains electronic components used to process data • Sometimes called the chassis which protects the internal electronic components • Includes the Motherboard which is the main circuit board of the system unit

  3. More about the Motherboard • Many electronic components attach to the board • Those components include: adapter cards, the processor, and memory chips • A computer chip is a small piece of semi conducting material which have integrated circuits • Other components are built into the board

  4. The ProcessorA component • central processing unit • Interprets & carries out basic instructions that operate a computer • Manages the computer’s operations • Contain 2 smaller components • Control unit • Arithmetic logic unit

  5. Directs & coordinates operation Interprets each instruction issued by a program & initiates the appropriate action to carry out the instruction Arithmetic operations Basic calculations Comparison operations Comparing 1 data to another Logical operations And, or, and Not The Control Unit The Arithmetic Logic Unit

  6. The Machine Cycle: 4 basic operations of a processor • Fetching- obtaining a program instruction or data from the memory • Decoding- translating instructions into signals • Execute- carries out the commands • Storing- writing result to memory

  7. Plenty more about processors • Contains: • A register which is storage location that temporarily holds data and instructions • A system clock that control the timing of computer operations • Clock speed

  8. Names of Processors • Pentium- used by high performance PCs • Celeron- used by less expensive basic PCs • Xeon and Itanium- ideal for workstations and low-end servers

  9. Processor Installation and Upgrades • 3 types of Upgrades • Chip-for-chip • Piggyback • Daughterboard

  10. New chips cause heat • A heat sink is a small ceramic component that absorbs and ventilates heat produced by electrical components • A heat pipe cools processors in notebook computers

  11. A coprocessor is a special chip or circuit board that assists the processor in performing tasks Floating point has numeric capabilities Parallel processing is a method that uses multiple processors to execute a program. Coprocessors and Parallel Processing

  12. Data Representation • Computers communicate digitally and recognize only 2 discrete states: on and off • recognizes the 2 states by the binary system which only has 2 unique digits( 0 & 1), called bits • 8 bits form a byte

  13. Coding scheme • The combinations of 0s and 1s that represent characters are defined by patterns called the coding scheme • Example: #3 is represented by 00110101 • The 2 popular coding schemes: • ASCII and EBCDIC

  14. Memory • Consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data, and the results of processed data (info)

  15. What memory stores? • 3 basic categories of items: • The operating system and other system software that control or maintain the computer and its devices • The application programs that carry out a specific task, such as word processing • The data being processed by the application programs and resulting information

  16. More about Memory • A byte resides temporarily in a location called the address • An address is a unique number that identifies the location of the byte • To access data in memory, the computer references the addresses that contain bytes of data

  17. Sizes of Memory • A kilobyte is equal to exactly 1,024 bytes • A megabyte is equal to almost 1 million bytes • A gigabyte equals almost 1 billion bytes 2 types of Memory • Volatile- when the computer’s power is turned off it loses its contents • Nonvolatile- does not lose its contents

  18. Ram • Stands for Random access memory or main memory • Consists of memory chips that can be read from and written to by the processor • It can hold multiple programs simultaneously • Most Ram is volatile

  19. Dynamic Ram Must be re-energized constantly or they lose their contents Static Ram Do not have to be re-energized as often More expensive Faster and more reliable 2 basic types of ram chips

  20. Where do RAM chips live? • Usually reside on a memory module which is a small circuit board • Memory slots on the motherboard hold memory modules • 3 types of modules: • SIMMS (single inline memory module) • DIMMS (dual inline memory module) • RIMMS

  21. Ram Configurations • The amount of RAM necessary in a computer often depends on the types of software you plan to use • The more RAM a computer has, the faster it • A software package will indicate the minimum amount of RAM it requires

  22. Cache: speeds up process • Memory cache helps speed the processes of the computer because it stores used instructions and data • L1 cache has the smallest capacity • L2 cache has a larger capacity than L1 • L3 cache exists only with L2 advanced transfer cache • Disk cache

  23. Read-only memory • ROM refers to memory chips storing permanent data • Data can’t be modified • ROM is nonvolatile • Rom chips are called firmware which contain permanently written data/info • A PROM (programmable) chip is a blank ROM which a programmer can write

  24. Flash Memory • A type of nonvolatile memory • Can be erased electronically and reprogrammed • Useful for updates • Flash memory cards store flash memory on a removable device instead of a chip

  25. An aide to chips • Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) • Technology that provides high speeds • Consumes little power • Uses battery power to retain info

  26. Memory Access Times • Access time is the time it takes the processor to read data/info • Directly effects how fast the computer runs • Nanoseconds and MHz are used to state access times • Accessing data from memory is faster than from hard disk

  27. Expansion slots and adapter cards • The slot is a socket that holds adapter card • An adapter card is a circuit board (expansion card) • Enhances functions • Provides connections to peripherals • A peripheral connects to the system unit and is controlled by the processor • Examples: modems, printers, scanners

  28. Neat cards • A sound card enhances sound by allowing sound to be input thru a microphone and output thru speakers • A video card converts output info into a signal which displays an image on the screen • A modemcard allows computer to communicate via telephone lines, cable, etc.. • A network card allows computer to access a network

  29. Pc cards and Flash memory cards • A PC Card slot is an expansion slot that holds PC cards • A PC card adds memory, storage, sound, fax/modem & communications • PC cards are 1 type of flash memory card • A flash memory card allows users to transfer data from mobile devices to desktop computers

  30. The point where the peripheral connects to the system unit Send data The term jack is used to identify audio/video ports Personal computers have ports in front Others have in back Joins a cable to a peripheral 2 genders of cables: Male- 1+ exposed pins Female-have matching holes to accept the pins Same gender can’t connect Gender changer- join same gender connectors Ports and Connectors

  31. Serial Ports • Interface that connects a device to the system by transferring bit by bit • Connect devices that don’t require fast data • Examples: mouse, keyboard • The COM port is a type of serial port

  32. Parallel Ports • Interface that connects devices by transferring more than 1 bit at a time • Printers are connected by this port • Also called a Centronics interface

  33. USB Ports • Short for Universal serial bus port • Can connect up to 127 different peripherals • Uses only 1 single connector type • To attach multiple peripherals use Daisy chain • The 1st USB device to the USB port on the computer, then the 2nd connects to 1st and so on • USB hub- plugs into USB port and contains multiple USB ports

  34. Special-Purpose Ports • Firewire- connect devices that require faster speeds • Midi- connects the system unit to a musical instrument • SCSI (small computer system interface)- connects disk drives and printers • IrDa- transmits data via infrared light waves • Bluetooth- transmits data using radio waves

  35. Buses • Electrical channels that bits transfer on • Allows inside and outside devices to communicate with each other • Consists of 2 parts: • A data bus transfers actual data • An address bus transfers info where the data is • Bus width- the # of bits the computer can transmit at 1 time

  36. Word Size and buses • The number of bits the processor can interpret and execute at a give time • Every bus has a clock speed (hertz) • 2 basic types of buses: • A system bus connects to main memory • An expansion bus connects to peripherals

  37. Expansion Bus • Communicates with peripherals attached to adapter card • Types: • ISA (Industrial Standard Architecture)-most common • Local- a high speed expansion that connects higher speed devices • AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port)- designed to improve the speed with 3-D graphics • FireWire- eliminate the need to install cards • The expansion bus for a PC Card is the PC Card bus

  38. Power Supply • Converts the wall outlet AC power into DC power • Near the supply is a fan to keep unit cool • Some external peripherals have an AC adapter, which is an external power supply

  39. Putting it all together • Many components of the system unit influence the speed and power of the computer • These include: • Type of processor • Clock speed of the processor • The amount of RAM • Clock speed of the bus

  40. Chapter Summary • Components of the system unit • Described how memory stores data/info • Discussed sequence of operations that occur when a computer executes an instruction