The First Occupants How was the culture of the First Occupants expressed? Mr. Thompson – History 404
Since 10 000 B.C. • What is the main difference between Western cultures (Europe) and the indigenous North American cultures? • How are we doing in this regard? • The main elements of Amerindian Culture: • Spirituality • Generosity • Dreams • Spoken word
Expressing Spirituality • The Circle of Life - immortality of the soul. • Burial Objects • Dreams • The Shaman
Expressing Spirituality • Amerindian traditions that are still practiced today: • Music – heavily based on drums and singing • Dancing – specific dances for specific rituals • Food – changing with the seasons • The “Sweat-Lodge” – communication with the spirits http://www.kahnawakepowwow.com/
Social Relationships • Generosity and the importance of trade. • The influence of gifts and trades. • Making Treaties: • Wampum Belts (Bead Belts) • Smoking of Tobacco (Peace-Pipe)
Social Relationships • Education. • Social Pressure – a true communist society. • Wars and interdependence
The French and Amerindians • The Arrival of the French: • the trading of goods • copper pots, iron tools, knives, tissues, bread, alcohol. • Impact on the Amerindian way of life • The French believed… • Missionaries and the sedentary Huron-Wendat.
The French and Amerindians • The French Fur Traders and Amerindian culture • The Traders started to adopt Amerindian ways • The Impact of the Fur Trade? • Amerindian dependence on European goods • Conclusion? • Thus, the relationship the Amerindians had with their surroundings for almost 10 000 years, started to deteriorate.
The French and Amerindians • Far from the Mother Country… • The French who lived in New France were slowly transformed. • Amerindian objects that became a part of French Canadian culture: • Canoes, toboggans, snowshoes, tobacco… • Conclusion? • A new culture was born that was neither Amerindian nor European.
Activity #1 • In either the Green or Red book- Find an Amerindian tradition that interests you and do some more research on it: • Tell me more about your chosen tradition… • Which nation/tribe does it come from? • How does the tradition fit into the cultural fabric of that tribe? • Has it died? Or is it still around? Explain. • DO NOT FORGET TO INCLUDE YOUR SOURCES!