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L3 EXTERNALS WORKSHOP June/ July 2013 Sue McVeigh Commerce Facilitator. The Externals 2012 results. Relationship to University E ntrance .

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June/July 2013

Sue McVeigh

Commerce Facilitator

relationship to university e ntrance
Relationship to University Entrance

Level 3 Achievement Standards that contribute towards the 10 credits (5 credits in reading and 5 credits in writing) required to meet University Entrance literacy requirements from 2014.

do your l3 business students know
Do your L3 Business students know

That, while it is an approved university entrance subject, Auckland University does not yet recogniseBusiness Studies as an approved subject for entry? This is because the subject lacks maturity. It would seem it would not be recognised until 2015 entry at the earliest.


To be in the best position to achieve high level credits in the L3 externals, teachers must ensure their teaching and learning programmes are strongly instilled with the L3 “big ideas”.


Of these, sustainability and globalisation are particularly prominent in the topic and sub-topic lists in the Curriculum Guide.


And the relevant Learning Objective

  • LO 8-1: Analyse how and why New Zealand businesses operating in global markets make operational and strategic decisions in response to interacting internal and external factors.

Global context

Forget, for now, what is in the externals? What key language would you consider essential for students to have a

thorough understanding of a

business operating in a global context?

What key concepts/language

would students need?

Do you have students who have not taken Business Studies at Levels 1 or 2?An introductory unit will be necessary.
as 3 1
AS 3.1

Demonstrate understanding of how internal factors interact within a business that operates in a global context

advice from 2012 assessment report
Advice from 2012 Assessment Report
  • Students who gained Excellence in 2012 in this standard:
  • Attempted all questions
  • Fully explained key ideas and strategies by stating a correct idea and then demonstrating understanding by illustrating the importance of that idea in a business context and then the impact on the business and its stakeholders

Used terms provided in the questions for scaffolding purposes to develop their answers

  • Included relevant business knowledge [accurate language] in their explanations to expand their answers such as comments on productivity, revenue, market share, profit

Evaluated how internal factors interact within a business clearly. Justifications added new relevant information to justify answers, rather than repeating earlier comments

  • Integrated business knowledge in their answers

The 2013 Specifications state:

For 3.1 (and 3.2)

Candidates will be expected to refer to an actual example of a New Zealand-registered business operating in a global context that they have studied during the year.


Also in the Specifications:

Students must bring a ruler and a calculator. The latter would only be necessary for investment appraisal calculations.

as 3 2
AS 3.2

Demonstrate understanding of strategic response to external factors by a business that operates in a global context

advice from 2012 assessment report1
Advice from 2012 Assessment Report
  • Students who gained Excellence in 2012 in this standard:
  • Attempted all questions ~ it is part (c) that requires students to demonstrate their understanding of a strategic response; without an answer for (c) the student cannot pass the standard

Fully explained a strategic response to an issue

  • Fully explained the impacts, positive and negative, to business and/or host countries
  • Used relevant business terms as appropriate
  • Integrated business information and terms to responses

Added new information to the justified conclusion that had not been used in previous explanations

“Many candidates did not appear to understand what a multi-level response was to an issue and did not refer to size, scope and time frame in their answers, even though this was indicated in the questions. Some candidates failed to understand the difference between cultural intelligence and cultural sustainability and answered using the wrong definition.”


And remember:

For (3.1) and 3.2

Candidates will be expected to refer to an actual example of a New Zealand-registered business operating in a global context that they have studied during the year.

as 3 3
AS 3.3

Apply business knowledge to address a complex problem(s) in a given global business context.

The conceptual requirements of 3.3 are dependent on the “content” of 3.1 and 3.2. Consider how you will address this if you are not offering one of these earlier externals.

advice from 2012 assessment report2
Advice from 2012 Assessment Report
  • Students who gained Excellence in 2012 in this standard:
  • Demonstrated a sound and thorough use of business theory in discussion
  • Demonstrated an excellent understanding of business concepts and fully integrated this into their answers
  • Fully explained causes, effects and solutions of the given problems

Clearly and fully explained the effects on the named business

  • Provided new and relevant information in the justification of the recommendation

“Candidates who performed well integrated case study material to demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of business knowledge.

Candidates who did not perform well were unable to use basic business terms to explain causes, effects and solutions to problems. Many did not relate their answers to the given business. Answers were often general and demonstrated little understanding of business concepts.”

maori business
Maori Business

A Māori business is a business that identifies itself as a Māori business. It will be owned by Māori and may be predominantly staffed by Māori. Typically, it will strongly value Māori culture and tikanga. Part of its kaupapa may be to support particular outcomes for Māori, and te reo may often be used in workplace interactions. Curriculum Guide

Image from

incorporating maori concepts
Incorporating Maori concepts

Every achievement standard has a statement such as

what are the concepts
What are the concepts?
  • Kaitiakitanga – guardianship of resources
  • Putaki – origin or reason for being (similar to vision statement)
  • Rangitaratanga – leadership or authority
  • Tikanga - ethical framework underpinning customs, systems, processes and appropriate behaviours (similar to a mission statement)
  • Turanga - legal framework of a company e.g. limited liability however in a Maori context this is complicated by dual ownership of communal assets e.g. land

Fuller interpretations appear in the Curriculum Guide

2013 specifications in relation to the maori concepts
2013 specifications in relation to the Maori concepts

Level 1

A specific Māori concept relating to business, Rangatiratanga, will be examined in 2013. The overarching principals and concepts of Rangatiratanga are exercise of leadership, authority, guardianship and ownership rights – particularly focused on resource production, utilisation and management for current and future requirements. This includes strategic development and oversight, relationship development and maintenance, problem-solving, conflict resolution and peace-making, adaptation, risk analysis and management.


Level 2

Māori concepts that relate to business may be assessed. Where this occurs, candidates will be given a definition or explanation of the term in the examination paper, and they will be required to apply or explain the concept in relation to a specific business context.


Level 3

A specific Māori concept relating to business, Pūtake, will be examined in 2013. Pūtake: The origin or reason for being – Every business has a reason for being. Many Māori businessesexist for the same reason as other businesses; that is, they are there to provide goods or services at a profit and to enrich the business owner(s). A significant number, however, have very different reasons for being – reasons that are associated with collectively-owned resources (such as land, tribal estates)and / or whakapapa-based groupings, such as whānau, hapū and iwi. Such businesses can encounter legal, cultural, and business complexities that are not experienced by mainstream businesses.

how do you weave the maori concepts through your course
How do you weave the Maori concepts through your course?

What Maori businesses are you, or could you, be using as case studies?

Several Maori Business resources have been filed at the Social Sciences wikispace. Details about this wiki appear later in this presentation.

consider the new subject specific language students of business studies have to cope with
Consider the new ~ subject-specific ~ language students of Business Studies have to cope with …
embedding the subject specific words
Embedding the subject-specific words
  • Glossaries
  • Keep applying key concepts to any section of work
  • Highlight the terminology and concepts and specifics in an answer
  • Get them to make flash cards/revision cards or quizlets


A great interactive way to create glossaries for students to use alone, in pairs, with parents, 24/7!

Jennie England from Waiheke High School has created many for us!


The general Quizlet site is

There are hundreds of glossaries that can be accessed by doing a “business studies” search in the quizlet site. Be aware though that not all will be relevant to our NZ curriculum.

surface vs deep literacy
Surface vs Deep Literacy

Quizlets and other such consolidation and revision techniques are fine, but ensure you give frequent opportunities for students to create deep and challenging writing tasks.


In the BST Curriculum Guide guidance is given as to what the step-ups between A, M and E look like.

Use this with your students ~ get them to identify/highlight evidence of the step-ups.

embed this academic language
Embed this academic language
  • Take time out to practisedeliberate acts of teaching
  • Train students
    • What does describe mean?
    • What is the difference between describe and explain?

Here’s a starting point. Look at the definitions on the next page ~ this is available on the wikispace ~ and enjoy the Chocolate Cake task.


When I put my fork into the dark brown cake it feels soft and moist. As I bite into it I taste the rich gooey chocolate. It tastes perfect.

(Give an account of, making reference to the qualities, characteristics or features)


The cake is probably soft and smooth because the baker read the recipe carefully, used quality ingredients and followed the instructions perfectly.

(Demonstrate an understanding of the reasons that contribute to the outcome.)


To add colour and interest to the cake I would add strawberries to the top of it.

(Demonstrate why the chosen course of action is best.)


Both the cake and the brownie are baked and chocolate- flavoured.

The cake is of a softer consistency, is higher and iced. The brownie is flatter with a hard top and a gooey centre.

(Compare = similarities; Contrast = differences)

writing the skill most vital for assessment
Writing – the skill most vital for assessment

You need to work with students to unpack standards by identifying

  • Subject specific words (blue)
  • Instruction words/academic language (yellow)
introduce the idea of connectives
Introduce the idea of connectives
  • EXPLAIN : because, as, this is the result of ..
  • EVALUATE: this is most important because…, this is better than this because…this has the most influence because….
  • JUSTIFY: I think that ….., in my opinion ….


Train students to use these and identify in exemplars of Excellence answers.

You have been given a sheet of Connectives; it is also available on the wikispace

teach how to structure lengthy answers
Teach how to structure lengthy answers
  • Unpacking questions
  • Looking at exemplar answers
  • Using starters
  • Scaffolding – you provide the plan
  • Sequencing – which comes first?
  • Group Activity – do a plan together and then divide the tasks
  • Work on Google Docs and come up with examples they peer mark
read the question
Read the question:
  • Read it twice and ask “what does it ask me to do?”
  • Highlight the key words here.
  • Practise, practise, practise ~ if not writing loads of answers, unpacking loads of questions
for externals expose students to past papers so they can see patterns in questioning styles
For externals, expose students to past papers so they can see patterns in questioning styles

For example, several of the questions in the 2012 3.2 exam followed the same format:

planning responses using starters
Planning responses using starters

You have been given an example from 1.3 2012 [Woody’s Timber]

Starters help students to unpack questions using the dot-points. They provide good scaffolding for in-class practice. Starters give students a greater chance of addressing all parts of a question.

Your stronger students will be able to launch straight into answering the question. Others will benefit from your help in organising their answers.


From 1.3, 2012

1 (d) Discuss possible solutions for Woody’s Timber Ltd that would deal with the recruitment issue.

In your answer you should:

  • Describe one appropriate short-term solution
  • Explain two advantages of this solution
  • Fully explain two long-term measures that Woody’s Timber Ltd could implement to avoid similar recruitment issues in the future

Compare and Contrast

3.1 (quality)

The question was:

Compare and contrast a quality assurance policy and quality control policy as a method of total quality management. In your answer, you should fully explain how EACH policy would impact on a business.

other strategies
Other strategies


SEX [statement, explanation, example]

TEXT [topic, explanation, example, tie-back to topic]

LEER [lead sentence, explanation, evidence, relevance]

Borrow ideas from other subjects

Share your best practice strategies

maybe you haven t yet met one of the business studies teacher s best friends
Maybe you haven’t yet met one of the Business Studies teacher’s best friends …

the national wikispace for secondary social sciences


This wiki is managed by the Social Science facilitators from Team Solutions and, our counterpart, TeTapuae o Rehua.


Make this page one of your favourites or bookmarks and check back frequently. Click on Recent Changes for updates.

Please please consider contributing resources for uploading to the site.


Scroll down the wiki page to see a set of resources for the three L3 externals.

These notes (in Word and Powerpoint) contain represent myinterpretation of content/knowledge. I am not the examiner, nor am I a L3 marker. I hope that my interpretation is accurate and that you find the resources useful.

I have not attempted to create learning activities to bring the notes alive.


You might want to create a new, possibly empty, Facebook profile linked to your school email address for the purpose of this group.

To join, send a friend request to nceabusinessteachers

or email

to be invited to join


Members discuss standards, share experiences, upload resources, etc. The site is similar in some ways to the very valuable Google groups for Accounting and Economics.


Jennie England from Waiheke High School has created her own wiki. She is happy for teachers to email her to ask to join the wiki.

So far Jennie has concentrated on uploading Level 3 files so the earlier tabs are empty.


Late last year I created a resource list with ideas for the strands. This is filed on the social sciences wikispaceunder Resource Ideas

Resource Ideas document


NZCETA has a substantial catalogue of Business Studies resources

  • Tirine is a NZ supplier of locally-produced Business Studies posters
  • Young Enterprise Trust has some excellent resources recently written for (internal) achievement standards. You need to register on their site to be able to see the resource list.


Australian Financial Review Case Studies


Times 100 case studies

TES resources You will need to register



The above lists are by no means exhaustive.

Here you were thinking our scarcest resource was resources! In fact it is time, the time needed to sift through the myriad of material that is out there.


Keep checking back on the wikispace

  • Join the Business Facebook community
  • Join a local cluster of Business teachers
  • Benefit from other Business teachers’ knowledge and resources and share your own
  • Enjoy the subject