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Sustainability of dry Petfood and the carbon-footprint. Jacques Wijnoogst. Tema & Partners. Owner and senior consultant. First Some definitions. Definitions: Sustainability is, in a broad sense, “the ability to endure, to exist and continue to exist”

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sustainability of dry petfood and the carbon footprint

Sustainability of dry Petfood and the carbon-footprint

Jacques Wijnoogst

Tema & Partners

Owner and senior consultant

first some definitions
First Some definitions
  • Definitions:
  • Sustainability is, in a broad sense, “the ability to endure, to exist and continue to exist”
  • A carbon footprint is "the total set of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event or product"
further definitions
Further definitions
  • The ecological “footprint” of a human being is a (controversial) method to measure how environmentally harmful our way of living is.
  • It is a measurement of all greenhouse gases we individually produce and has units of tonnes (or kg) of carbon dioxide equivalent.
human co 2 production
Human CO2 production
  • An European produces as an average

11 tonnes CO2 - equivalent per year

and animals
And animals?
  • Robert and Brenda Vale, two architects who specialise in sustainable living at Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand wrote a book :
  • “Time to Eat the Dog: The real guide to sustainable living”
how to compare eco footprints
How to compare eco-footprints?
  • The authors calculated the ecological paw, claw and fin-print of the family pet and they expressed it in land surface area (m2, ha )
  • They calculated the energy which is consumed to produce, maintain, exist or grow and compare this with the energy that can be produced by one hectare per year.
  • This is approximately 135 gigajoules
and now
And now!
  • The consumption of a 4,6 Toyota Land Cruiser, driving 10.000km/year, is 55.1 gigajoules and the Vales calculated a resulting eco-footprint of 0.41 hectares.
  • A big dog like a German shepherd has a footprint of 1.1 hectares if the dog eats his daily meal of dry pellets and based on the average composition of this feed.
some other animals
Some other animals
  • Cats have an eco-footprint of 0,15 hectares

(slightly less than a Volkswagen Golf)

  • Hamsters have 0,014 hectares each ( two is the same as a Plasma TV)
  • Even a gold fish has a “fin-print” of 0.00034 hectares to sustain (equals two cellphones)
and a check
And a check!
  • John Barrett at the Stockholm Environment Institute in York, UK checked the calculations and concluded:
  • "Owning a dog really is quite an extravagance, mainly because of the carbon footprint of meat"
  • David Mackay, physicist at Cambridge University, UK and government’s energy advisor says:
  • "Pets definitely deserve attention: by my estimates, the energy footprint of a cat is about 2 per cent of the average British person's energy footprint - and it's bigger for most dogs."
what can be our attitude towards this
What can be our attitude towards this?
  • First of all: Let’s except that there might come more critical attitude to dry petfood!
and this can be a resulting main question
And this can be a resulting main question!
  • “How can we make our dry products more Green?”
possible philosophy
Possible philosophy
  • Pets belong to the human environment and we should take care to feed them well!
  • But we also have to take care of the carbon footprint and an option is to produce feed by using only by-products from the human food industry.
let s start with the raw materials
Let’s start with the raw materials
  • A dry petfood in general might contain:
  • Meat or fish meal like ingredients which are mainly dried to give it better storage and handling properties. --This is the first production of a lot of ghg’s.
  • Whole cereals like corn, wheat and so on. Here we need a lot of fertilizer to get good crops and we need to cook them -- costing energy
  • Whole soy or soy products sometimes made by special -- energy consuming processes.
origin of the raw materials
Origin of the raw materials
  • Whole cereals 50,80%
  • Cereal by-products 8,30%
  • Animal by-products 35,90%
  • Premix/minerals 5,10%
as diagram
As Diagram

here we can “change”

Here and

and this means
And this means:
  • no whole cereals,
  • no fish meal from caught fish, only by-product from fish (filleting) processing plants and/or hydrolyzed proteins from fish and meat remains.
  • No oils/fats from plants but only from by-products from meat processing facilities
also increase the fcr of petfood
Also increase the FCR of petfood
  • The Feed Conversion Rate = Kg’s of feed to make kg’s of meat.
  • FCR improvement is not a hot item in the petfood business. We are no meat producers!
  • Nevertheless look what happened in the feed industry:
  • In 1950s, 5 kg of feed were required to produce 1 kg of pig (live weight). The figure is now below 3 kg for the most efficient production systems!
if we do this for petfood
If we do this for petfood
  • The benefit for society is threefold:
    • Lower demand for feed sources
    • Lower production cost
    • Lower amounts of N and P emissions, smaller droppings
  • And the main result:
  • Lower carbon-footprint
and an other option
And an other option
  • Keep animal byproducts from slaughter houses liquid and/or hydrolize them and produce high concentrated feed pellets from it by “extrusion at the slaughter house”
  • Mix with pellets made from the agriculture by-products and with simple extruders that can do “Dry extrusion”
the influence of that
The influence of that ?
  • No more drying cost of blood, hydrolized proteins, meat by-products and so on
  • Dry extrusion of the agriculture by-products can result in average 20 % less drying cost
let s go green
Let’s go green!
  • Produce new products that are:
  • Only made from by-products of human food production.
  • Avoid drying of certain raw materials and introduce them as liquid in the extrusion process.
and in the current factory situation
And in the current factory situation?
  • Look to the main energy consuming processes and analyze properly all steps.
some energy saving options
Some energy saving options
  • Close loop grinding and introduction of flash off in the grinder or in fluid bed exchanger
  • Finer grinding of the meal
  • Addition of enzymes in the meal
finer grinding
Finer grinding
  • 10 – 20% capacity increase extruder
  • 1 – 2 % less steam in the conditioner
  • Less wear extruder barrel and screw elements
  • Better and more equal shape of the chunks
  • Higher quality
enzyme addition
Enzyme addition
  • Addition of amylase can give 10% capacity increase and lowers energy use of the motor.
options for design of the process lines
Options for design of the process lines
  • Use a gas fired steam generator per line and connect the exhaust with dryer entrance (exhaust air can be up to 140 degrees Celsius)
  • Do not use pneumatic transport between extruder and dryer but place extruder on top of the dryer. (can save up to 75 kW/hr electric energy and less air to be treated in odour abatement installation)
more options
More options
  • Use an eco-processor (fluid bed system) to recover energy from flash off and the first stage of the dryer /cooler exhaust air.
  • The aim of the eco-process is to recycle the heat content of these mass flows into the process and thus to reduce the demand for live heating steam. (Less CO2!)
  • Besides, the eco-process ensures a significant reduction of the emission of odours.