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Qué es el Gobierno Electrónico?

Qué es el Gobierno Electrónico? . Professor Helen Margetts Oxford Internet Institute University of Oxford. www.governmentontheweb.org , www.oii.ox.ac.uk. What is e-government?.

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Qué es el Gobierno Electrónico?

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  1. Qué es el Gobierno Electrónico? Professor Helen Margetts Oxford Internet Institute University of Oxford www.governmentontheweb.org, www.oii.ox.ac.uk

  2. What is e-government? • The use by government of the internet and related information technologies internally and to communicate with citizens, businesses, NGOs and other governments

  3. The electronic element of government • 1950s: Bureaucracy + defence, scientific IT • 1960s - 70s: Bureaucracy + large scale computer systems • 1970s - 80s: Bureaucracy + databases, networks of PCs • 1990s – 00s: Bureaucracy + ‘Government on the Web’ Internet and web-based technologies offer real possibility of transformation of state-societal relationships – in contrast to earlier information technologies which were largely internally facing • Government IT now > 1% of GDP of most industrialised states (UK spends £14 billion annually)

  4. How is e-government different from government? • More bureaucratic – increased rationalization? • More chaotic – increase in fluidity and flexibility? • Transformation

  5. Policy criticality of e-government • Functionality of government depends on reliability of large-scale information systems eg. taxation, welfare administration, defence, law and order, border control • Technological innovation drives policy innovation eg. • Biometric identity cards • DNA data, genetic data • Electronic tagging • Road pricing

  6. e-government: practice and potential • IT central to internal processes of government • Internet allows easy communication between computers – unlike earlier IT • Widespread societal usage means real possibility for transformation of governments’ interactions with society • Web-based innovations cheaper and lower risk (build-and-learn technologies) than earlier IT • BUT e-government lags behind e-society & e-commerce in many countries • WHY?

  7. Challenges for E-government – supply side • New web-based initiatives must link with legacy systems • Government online should be more transparent – but can be more complex, confusing, difficult to control • Governments struggle to maintain technical expertise (and compete with private sector for skills) • Most governments outsource large proportion of e-government to private sector computer services providers • New markets of providers of government IT develop – all shapes and sizes • Relationship management with new players is major part of e-government

  8. Challenges for E-government – demand side • Citizens interact with governments less than commercial organisations (and often for negative reasons) • Citizens must be incentivized to use e-government • Digital divides – always some groups who do not have internet access • So, channel management is important • But, E-government that citizens don’t use is E-xpensive government

  9. Key underlying factors in e-government development • Political support for e-government • Financial commitment • New public management reform and fragmentation • Contracting regime: (ratio of market power/expertise vis a vis government) • Government in-house capacity • Market power of largest firms • Emphasis on competition • Administrative culture: cultural barriers

  10. Australia: e-government • World leader in e-government up to 1999 • Big agencies lead the field–- Australian Tax Office, Centrelink (social welfare), Employment BUT • Joined-up initiatives scattered and episodic – multiple central agencies • Failed contracting initiative leaves global providers in dominant position

  11. UK: e-government • High levels of political support • Financial commitment and central resources BUT • Poor performance of government IT systems (high disaster rate) • Highly oligopolistic contracting regime (top 5 have 90% of market) • High index of corporate power vis a vis central government • Administrative culture adverse to Internet innovation • E-government take-up is low

  12. Canada: e-government • World e-government leader in consultancy rankings • High levels of political support, sound financial commitment and central initiatives • Across the board success: incremental approach • Excellent government: industry power ratio (government retains expertise) BUT • Future success reliant on ‘super-project’ (the Secure Channel) CA $1.2 billion • …tendered to ‘inter-galactic’ consortium of contractors

  13. New Zealand e-government • Many drivers towards e-government success (techno-culture, geographical separation, dispersed country, small population) BUT • High levels of organisational fragmentation • Low levels of e-government expenditure • Very low central government vis a vis corporate power/expertise index

  14. USA e-government • High levels of political support and financial commitment • Major successes in some areas (eg e-tax benefits from pragmatic approach) • Diffuse government IT market (top 5 have 20%) BUT • Lack of central co-ordination • Confusing governmental presence, central portal came late, proliferation of web sites • Legacy systems in big agencies remain problem – and spiralling cost

  15. Netherlands: e-government • Innovative and entrepeneurial approach • High levels of political support • Networked culture helps inter-agency co-operation • Good performance of government IT systems • Good government-industry relations and networks (very diffuse market) BUT • Big organisational variations • Lack of central co-ordination

  16. Japan: e-government • Highly reliable government IT systems BUT • Political support and central initiatives came late • Autonomous ministries resist collaborative initiatives • Oligopolistic contracting regime, dominated by huge domestic players, no in-house expertise • Administrative culture highly adverse to Internet innovation • Japan struggles to introduce e-government

  17. How countries rate on measures of the IT industry’s power/influence

  18. Demand side variation in usage of e-government % total population 2003 2002 2001 Netherlands 52 41 31 Canada 51 48 46 Australia 47 46 31 New Zealand 45 40 NA USA 44 43 34 UK 18 13 11 Japan 15 13 17 Source: Taylor Nelson Sofres (2003)

  19. Digital-era Governancetrends for the future • Reintegration – roll back of agencification, joined up governance, in-sourcing, shared services • Needs-based holism – one-stop, zero-stop provision, client based organization, end-to-end service re-engineering • Digitisation changes – agencies ‘become’ their web-sites, electronic services delivery, zero-touch technology, customer segmentation But none are inevitable

  20. Benefits of e-government:raising nodality? • Key tool of government is nodality – ‘the property of being in the middle of information or social networks’ (other tools are authority, treasure and organisation) • E-government offers tremendous potential for increasing government nodality – even without e-transactions eg. UK has around 10 million web pages • ‘Nodal’ e-government will be more visible, more accessible – and cheaper • BUT, government faces new competition for nodality: • Competition from e-commerce, other e-governments, e-banks, e-travel companies, e-media....... • Most people use search – so nodality of e-government in hands of Google, MSN etc.

  21. Developing ‘healthy’ e-government? ‘Healthy’ e-government • High visibility (high number of ‘in-links’, high on search engine rankings) • Interconnectedness (‘small world’ characteristics) – dependent on size, structure etc. • With a ‘healthy’ domain, government gains ‘nodality’ in the on-line world ‘Unhealthy’ e-government • Suffers net loss of nodality in internet world - • if other organisations are more sophisticated at increasing visibility, structuring domains.... • government can lose a (global) competition it was not aware of entering • And e-government becomes less – not more - efficient

  22. Qué es el Gobierno Electrónico?

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