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DNA: life's code. =. What does DNA mean?. DNA=. D eoxyribo- N ucleic A cid. _____________. DNA looks like. A ladder. twisted. ...that has been __________ over and over. It's called a "________________". Double helix. What's its function?.

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slide2

What does DNA mean?

DNA=

Deoxyribo-Nucleic Acid

_____________

slide3

DNA looks like...

A ladder

twisted

...that has been __________

over and over.

It's called a

"________________"

Double helix

slide4

What's its function?

DNA makes up genes that determines the ______ of all living things….such as:

traits

Eye color, skin color, texture, freckles, hair color, style…etc

slide5

Makes up _____________

GENES

Controls ____________

TRAITS

DNA

Forms _______________________

CHROMOSOMES

NUCLEUS

Found in the __________ of all cells

slide6

The code is found in the “________” of the ladder.

Each rung is a combination of ______ ________________ bonded together.

The Nitrogen bases are:

C = CYTOSINE

G = GUANINE

T = THYMINE

A = ADENINE

RUNGS

2 nitrogen bases

slide7

How does the

DNA code work?

slide8

“A” bonds ONLY with “___”

T

A

T

C

G

“C” bonds ONLY with “___”

G

A

T

A

T

G

C

G

C

C

G

This goes on for the entire length of the DNA molecule, which consists of __________ of nitrogen bases.

T

billions

A

slide9

The Code

The ____________________ in DNA will determine what the trait is.

sequence of letters

For example: Lets take a look at the letters of the alphabet…

If you change the letters to

“L O W”

it no longer means…

“O W L” means

However…

“A predatory bird”

“A predatory bird”

slide10

Since DNA consists of billions of nitrogen bases, the amount of variation among organisms is HUGE. If you change only one letter, the entire code will be changed, and therefore the organism will be different!!

slide11

How are DNA

& chromosomes

related?

  • DNA makes up a _______________.
  • Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of every cell in the body!!

chromosome

slide12

What is a gene?

A gene is a

________________________that codes for one __________________.

Small piece

Of DNA

gene

specific

trait

30,000

There are about __________ genes in an entire DNA molecule

slide13

Making proteins

DNA

RNA

Protein

ribosome

nucleus

(Physical trait)

RNA is a “__________” molecule. It helps carry the DNA code to the __________ so it can make the protein.

helper

Skin color/texture

Eye color/shape

Height

Bone density

Hair texture

Etc…

ribosome

DNA contains the code for what protein will be made by the cell

slide14

Mutations

  • When the sequence of letters is changed. Since the code no longer reads the correct way, the cell does not make the correct protein.
  • Consequently, a different trait may appear.
  • They are usually BAD

Oops!!

slide15

Questions

Deoxyribo-nucleic acid

  • What does DNA mean? _____________________________________
  • Suppose one side of a DNA molecule had the bases
  • A-A-G-T-C- G- A-T-G-G-C-A-C-C. What would the other side of the DNA look like? ____________________________________________
  • What is the function of RNA? _____________________________
  • What is a mutation? ______________________________________
  • What term best describes what a DNA looks like? _________________
  • Explain the relationship between DNA, chromosomes, and genes?
  • __________________________________________________________
  • If everyone consists of only 4 nitrogen bases (A-T-C-G), why are no two people alike? __________________________________
  • How many chromosomes does a human have? ___________
  • How many genes does a human have? ___________
  • Therefore, approximately how many genes are on a single chromosome? ______
  • If 24% of a DNA molecule is Adenine, what percent would be…
  • Thymine = ____% Guanine= _____% Cytosine= _____%

T-

T-

C-

A-

G-

C--

T-

A-

C-

C-

G-

T-

G-G

carry the DNA code to the ribosome

A random change in the DNA code

Double helix

A chromosomes is made up of DNA, which is consists of about 30,000 genes

bc it’s the sequence of nitogen bases that makes us different

46

About 30,000

~ 650

24

26

26

slide16

DNA in Review

DNA MOLECULE

_______________

(SHAPE)

SIDE PARTS RUNG PARTS

___________ ___________

___________

& ___________

___________ ___________

slide17

What is the difference between a cell,

nucleus, chromosome, genes, and DNA?

How are they related?

slide18

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN…

Cell: ________________________________

Nucleus: ________________________________

Chromosome: _________________________________

Gene(s): _____________________________________

DNA: ________________________________________

How are they related? _____________________________

_______________________________________________

slide19

MUTATIONS

CHANGE

A MUTATION is any _________________ in copying the DNA message.

CHANGE = WRONG ______________

A wrong base in the DNA gives the cell the wrong __________________.

If a cell has the wrong message, the wrong type of ________________ is made.

If the wrong protein is made, the wrong ________________ may appear.

BASE PAIR

MESSAGE

PROTEIN

TRAIT

slide20

CAUSES OF MUTATIONS

  • Simple copying mistakes during cell reproduction
    • A mutation causes a change in an offspring’s traits only when it takes place in the ___________________ sex cells.
  • Chemicals
    • _______________
    • _______________
  • Radiation
    • _______________
    • _______________

PARENTS

NICOTINE

ASBESTOS

SUN

X-RAY

__________________: Any agent that can cause alterations to DNA

MUTAGEN

slide21

EFFECTS OF MUTATIONS

HARMFUL MUTATIONS

HELPFUL MUTATIONS

Any trait that interferes with the ______________________

and _________________ of an organism.

Any trait that enhances an organisms ability to______________________

and _________________ in its _____________________.

REPRODUCTION

REPRODUCE

SURVIVAL

SURVIVE

ENVIRONMENT

slide22

CLONING

  • The term “clone” refers to organisms having ____________________
  • Two “clones” are exact _______________ of each other.
  • Same _______ = Same __________ = Same _________
  • Examples of clones:
  • a. _________________: form from the splitting of _____ fertilized egg
  • b. Clone organisms produced in ___________________

IDENTICAL DNA

copies

GENES

TRAITS

DNA

IDENTICAL TWINS

ONE

LABORATORY

slide24

Cloning DNA

20

20

20

20

20

Remove

Body Cells

Dark Green Frog

Insert Nucleus from Dark frog into egg of Light frog

10

10

Destroy

Nucleus

Remove

Unfertilized

Ovum

Light Green Frog