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C hair of Medical Biology, M icrobiology, V irology, and I mmunology. MICROBIOLOGY OF ENVIRONMENTS. MICROBIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODY. Lecturer Prof. S. Klymnyuk. Ecology (oicos – house, hold, logos - doctrine) is the study of relationships among organisms and their environment.
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Virology, and Immunology
MICROBIOLOGY OF ENVIRONMENTS. MICROBIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODY
Lecturer Prof. S. Klymnyuk
The microecologyis the science about places of invading of microorganisms and their ecological links.
population - an elementary evolutional unit (structure) of a definite species;
biotope - site, habitation of a population, for parasites - place of their localization in an organism;
microbiocenosis- microbial assemblage, association, that is collection of populations of different species of microorganisms, which dwell (live) in the defined biotope (for example, in an oral cavity, reservoir);
ecosystem - system, in which enters a biotope and microbiocenosis.
Neutralism - the populations, existing in one biotope do not stimulate and do not oppress each other.
Mutalism exists when organisms live in an obligatory but mutually beneficial relationship.
Commensalism - such relationship, at which the member called the commensal receives benefits, when its coinhabitant is neither harmed nor benefitted.
For example: the production of succinic acid from Campylobacter species that is known to be used as a growth factor by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Streptococcus and Actinomyces species produce formate, which may then be used by Campylobacter species. Fusobacterium species produce both thiamine and isobutyrate that may be used by spirochetes to support their growth.
Antagonism - oppression of one popula-tion another. The microbes – antagonists produce antibiotics, bacteriocines, fatty acids, which cause destruction of bacteria or delay their reproduction.
Parasitism - such kind of symbiosis, at which one population (parasite) brings harm to the host, and for itself has a benefit.
Ricketsia – intracellular
The amount of bacteria in one gram of soil can be very great – from 200 millions up to 10 billions.
The most surface sphere of soil (crust by width of 2-3 mm) is very poor by microorga-nisms. A desiccation and the solar rays pernici-ously influence them. The ground mass of bacteria is on depth 10-20 cm. On depth of 1,5-2 m of untouched ground the microbes do not meet almost.
A degree of fecal contamination of soil is determined on presence and quantity (amount) of first three species.
Also general microbial number (GNM) – quantity (amount) of all saprophytic bacteria in 1 g of soil is examined.
Under the epidemic indications soil also is inspected on presence in it pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella, Shigella, C. tetani, C. botulinum, C. perfringens, B. anthracis and others).
Main path of microbial contamination of water is penetration of unpurified waste from sewage of the populated area. Therefore, the more water is polluted with similar organic matters, there are more in it of microorganisms.
1. Common microbial number in one ml of water - no more than 100.
2. Number of bacteria of intestinal rod group (coli-index) in 1000 ml of water - no more than 3.
3. Index of fresh fecal contamination, that is quantity(amount) E.coli in 1000 ml of water - absence.
4. Quantity coli-phages (number of colony-forming units) in 1000 ml of water - absence.
5. Besides in 25 litters of potable water pathogenic Protozoa (cyst of lamblia, dysenteric amebas, balantidia) and ovum of helmints there should be absent.
Coli-index is determined by a method of membrane filters or fermentation tests.
Microflora of air
Main sources of microbial air pollution is the soil, water and man.
general microbial number
sanitary - indicative microorganisms:
Total number of microbes in operation hall before the operation should not exceed 500 in 1 м3, and after operation - 1000 in 1 м3. The quantity of haemolytic and viridans streptococci should not be at all.
It is a huge zoological garden.
Constant (obligate, resident, indigenous, autochthonous) microflora is native, no imported one of different biotopes.
Transient (temporary, facultative, allochthonous) microflora is not aboriginal, it is acquired one.
The tears perniciously affect on microbes. In 47 % of people the microflora here is completely absent.
Only few species have adapted to existence on a conjunctiva:
In a larynx, the trachea and large bronchuses there are few of microbes.
Smaller bronchi and alveoli are normally sterile.
At birth a gastrointestinal path and feces of the child are sterile. In 3 - 4 days there is an intensive invading them by bacteria of genus Escherichia,Proteus, Veilonella, Lactobacterium, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus. However, by the end of the first week putrefacient bacteria are superseded by a lactate microflora. It mainly Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. longum, B. infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus are. They are a main microflora of the child at nursing. At artificial feeding or at transition to the mixed feeding there is an increase of the putrifactive microorganisms. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacterium play the large role in decomposition of mammary milk, help the process of digestion.
In an oral cavity there is a plenty of microorga-nisms. More than 100 species of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria are described. In 1 ml of a spit can be found about 100 million of microbial cells.
Constant (stationary) temperature (37 ºС), humidity, the oddments of food, alkaline reaction of a spit and wide aeration promote reproduction of microbes.
The main mass of microbes (70 %) is in a debris. In 1 mg of dry mass of scurf can be about 250 million of bacteria.
(all up to 30 species).
Now microbiologists have detected and have described more than 270 species of bacteria. Their common biomass compounds about 1,5 kg. During day the man with feces discharges of 17-18 billions microbes.
A – normal gingiva;
B - disease
Take part in all kinds of metabolism
Produce vitamines, enzymes, hormons
Thus there is a decrease or disappearance of some bacteria and sharp increase others, especially infrequent or not characteristic for the given biotope of microorganisms. As a rule, the quantity of an facultative- anaerobic microflora is enlarged. It can be the Gram-negative rods, staphylococci, Candida albicans and species Clostridium.
1. Monobiotes - completely deprived of microbes;
2. Dibiotes - animals infected by one species of bacteria;
3. Polybiotes – having two and more microbial species in organism.