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Assessment of Community Participation to Reduce Impact of Climate Change at Citarum Watershed, West Java Indonesia. Uci Sulandari Rizaldi Boer Eka Intan Kumala Puteri Delon Martinus. Bogor Agricultural University and

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Assessment of Community Participation to Reduce Impact of Climate Change at Citarum Watershed,

West Java Indonesia

Uci Sulandari

Rizaldi Boer

Eka Intan Kumala Puteri

Delon Martinus

Bogor Agricultural University and

Applied Research Centre for Climate and Technology-Indonesia (ARCATE-Indonesia)

introduction
Introduction
  • Citarum river plays important role for supplying water of districts in and surrounding the watershed
  • Historical data showed:
    • Annual Rainfall in Citarum Wathershed decreased at a rate of 10 mm/year(Pawitan 2002)
    • Dry season tended to decrease (Kaimuddin et al,2002)
introduction3
Introduction

Forest cover at upper Citarum decrease at a rate of about 2.4% per year ~ cause the ratio between maximum and minimum flow increased

Present ratio 86 : 1 (Boer et al., 2004), while the ideal ratio 25:1 (Asdak, 2002)

Under changing climate, intensity and frequency of extreme climate events may increase ~ there is an urgent need to stop deforestation and increase forest cover at the upper Citarum Watershed as an effort to reduce the impact of the changing climate

slide4

Efforts to increase and protect forest in the upper Citarum should not be only the responsibility of upstream community but also the responsibility of downstream communities

slide5

Objectives

  • To assess perception of communities to climate change and to evaluate the impact of climate hazards on upstream and downstream communities
  • To evaluate driving factors for deforestation at the upper Citarum wahtershed
  • To assess perception of downstream communities to the need of increasing forest cover of the upper Citarum watershed as effort to mitigate impact of climate hazards
  • To assess willingness of downstream community of Citarum watershed to pay for protecting and improving forest cover at upper the Citarum.
methodology
Methodology

STUDY SITES

  • Three sites in the upstream
  • Four sites in downstream:
    • 2 Agriculture areas
    • 2 Cities
methodology7
Methodology

SURVEY METHOD

  • Interview
    • 75 respondents at the three villages
    • 26 respondents at agriculture downstream
    • 900 respondents at two cities downstream
aimed of the surveys
Aimed of the Surveys
  • Survey in the three villages upstream and two agriculture areas was aimed:
    • To assess perception of communities to climate change,
    • To evaluate impact of climate hazards, and
    • To assess driving factors for deforestation and types of rewards preferred by upper watershed community for the services they provided in maintaining and protecting forests
aimed of the surveys9
Aimed of the Surveys
  • Survey in the two cities was aimed:
    • To assess the willingness of the community to pay compensation for environmental services provided by the upper watershed community in maintaining and protecting forest
method of analysis
Method of Analysis
  • Statistical Descriptive: Perspective communities to climate change (in agriculture area)
  • AHP: Prioritizing driving factors for deforestation and types of rewards in upstream
  • CVM: Willingness to pay of downstream communities
result and discussion
Result and Discussion

1. 85% of respondents stated that the intensity of climate hazards have increased

slide13

3. Perception of Community to Factors Causing the Increase of Drought and Flood Intensity and Role of Forest Function

60% of respondents at Ciparay and Bojongsoang said that they did not know factors causing the increase of drought and flood intensity

Communities in the upper Citarum watershed (Cikembang, Cibereum and Tarumajaya) knew quite well with forest function

slide15

4. Driving Factors for Deforestation and Rewards Preferred by Community for Protecting Forest

Level 1. Community participation to protect and rehabilitate forest

Level 2. a. Lack of income sources for meeting primary needs of the household.

b. Lack of knowledge on forest function

c. Lack of land for cultivation

d. Lack of cooperation between village institutions in protecting forest

  • Level 3. Aid alternative: Fund aid, live stock aid, education aid agriculture equipment aid
slide16

Inconsistency ratios of the respondent in answering the question were all less than 0.1, indicating high level of consistency or certainty.

The inconsistency ratios for Tarumajaya, Cikembang and Cibereum were 0.09, 0.01 and 0.08

slide17

Community participation at Tarumajaya to protect and rehabilitate forest

Level 1

Lack of income to meet primary needs

0.56

Lack of knowledge of forest function

0.06

Lack of land for cultivation

0.31

Level 2

Fund aid

0.26

Livestock aid

0.50

Education aid

0.09

Agriculture equipments aid

0.07

Level 3

Analytical Hierarchical Process for protecting and rehabilitating forest

slide18

5. Willingness of Downstream Community to Pay Compensation

Perception of downstream community to the role of upstream community and the need of rehabilitating the forest

slide19

WTP (Willingness to Pay) :

Purwakarta was Rp.900,- per 10 m3

North Jakarta was Rp.1500,00 per 10 m3.

slide20

Dependency of willingness to pay on level of knowledge on forest function and the perception of downstream community.

coefficients of logistic regression for wtp for purwakarta and north jakarta

Predictors

Purwakarta

North Jakarta

Level of knowledge on forest function (X1)

2,9231**

(18,60)

4,5395**

93,65

Perception on the role of upstream community (X2)

3,2223**

25,09

3,5320**

34,19

Perception on the need for rehabilitating forest (X3)

1,6396*

5,15

3,176**

23,96

Job (X4 in category)

0,5557*

1,74

1,2802*

3,60

Age (X5 in years)

0,09050**

1,09

0,11729**

1,12

Education (X6 in years)

0,14171*

1,15

0,15388**

1,17

Income (X7 in category)

1,3333*

3,79

1,3433*

3,83

Family size (X8 in number of family)

-0,7291**

0,48

-0,3771*

0,69

Sex (X9)

1,1928**

3,30

2,0481**

7,75

R2

87.9%

97.8%

Coefficients of logistic regression for WTP for Purwakarta and North Jakarta
slide22

Most of respondents agree that the intensity and the frequency of climate hazards (drought and flood) have increased recently. Deforestation can be avoided if the community can increase land use intensity or find suitable alternative activities to get additional income such as raising livestock and trading. Development of reward system for environmental services provided by the upstream community is possible as the downstream communities is willing to support activities or program for maintaining and increasing forest cover of the upstream watershed by increasing price of drinking water from the current price. (WTP) of the downstream communities highly depends on level of understanding on forest function and their perception on the role of upstream communities and the need for rehabilitating the forest. There is a need to establish institutional system for collecting, transferring or distributing the payment to the community as well as the regulation.

Conclusion