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Education for All by 2015: Will we make it?. Keith Hinchliffe London, 17 January 2008. 2000. 2005. 2008. Gender parity goal. 2015. Dakar. Midpoint. The big questions in 2008. Have national governments followed up on their commitment to EFA? Where are the greatest challenges?

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slide1

Education for All by 2015:

Will we make it?

Keith HinchliffeLondon, 17 January 2008

the big questions in 2008

2000

2005

2008

Gender parity goal

2015

Dakar

Midpoint

The big questions in 2008
  • Have national governments followed up on their commitment to EFA?
  • Where are the greatest challenges?
  • Are donors providing adequate support?
  • What requires top policy attention?
global trends influence efa
Global trends influence EFA
  • Sustained economic growth
  • Increasing inequalities
  • Rapid urbanization
  • Health concerns
  • Knowledge economies
progress in primary education

1991

1999

2005

Progress in primary education

Sub-Saharan Africa

Primary school enrolment up:

36% in sub-Saharan Africa

22% in South and West Asia

11% in Arab States

Arab States

South/West Asia

Central Asia

Central/Eastern

Europe

East Asia/Pacific

Latin America

Caribbean

North America

Western Europe

60

80

50

70

90

100

Net enrolment ratios

in primary education (%)

slide6

1991

1999

2005

Rapid expansion of primary education

The 25 countries with the highest NER increases

Niger

Burkina

Eritrea

Mali

Guinea

Ethiopia

Senegal

Significant acceleration in post-Dakar period compared to 1990s

Ghana

Mauritania

Yemen

Gambia

Mozambique

Benin

Kenya

Nepal

Morocco

Lesotho

Zambia

Myanmar

Madagascar

Guatemala

Iran, Isl. Rep.

Sao Tome/Principe

U. R. Tanzania

Cambodia

0

20

40

60

80

100

Net enrolment ratios

in primary education (%)

slide7

More girls in primary school

Gender parity line

Afghanistan

  • 17countries achieved gender parity in primary education between 1999 and 2005
  • In total 63% of countries have achieved gender parity at the primary level

Chad

Niger

Yemen

Côte

Mali

Benin

Burkina

Djibouti

Guinea

Mozambique

Togo

Burundi

Ethiopia

Morocco

  • Specific policies to encourage girls’ schooling have included:

- Community mobilization

- Targeting disadvantaged areas

- Free learning materials

- Sanitation in schools

Guatemala

Cambodia

India

Nepal

Senegal

Ghana

Uganda

1999

Mauritania

2005

Malawi

Gambia

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

Gender parity index in primary GER

out of school children declining

2005

Out-of-school children declining

Sub-Saharan Africa

1999: 96 million

South/West Asia

East Asia/Pacific

Arab States

2005: 72 million

1999

Latin America

Caribbean

Central/Eastern

Europe

North America

Western Europe

60% girls in Arab States

66% in South and West Asia

Central Asia

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Out-of school children, million

slide9

Out-of-school children: country zoom

Nigeria

India

Pakistan

Ethiopia

U. R. Tanzania

Important progress in some countries with more than one million out-of school children in 1999

Kenya

Iran, Isl. Rep.

Mozambique

Niger

1999

Yemen

2005

Ghana

Côte d'Ivoire

Burkina Faso

Bangladesh

Morocco

Mali

Myanmar

Nepal

Brazil

0

2

4

6

8

Out-of-school children, million

increased attention to quality issues
Increased attention to quality issues

1995-1999

Sub-Saharan Africa

33

24

2000-2006

Arab States

55

15

More and more governments are carrying out national learning assessments and participating in international and regional ones

11

33

Central Asia

64

East Asia/Pacific

15

11

44

South/West Asia

Latin America

Caribbean

54

59

N. America

W. Europe

69

77

Central

Eastern Europe

65

25

% of countries that have carried out at least one national assessment between 1995-99 and 2000-06

efa development index significant progress in some countries
EFA Development Index: significant progress in some countries

Out of 129 countries:

South Africa

Dominican Rep.

Namibia

51 high achievers

Swaziland

Lesotho

Guatemala

53in intermediate position.

Nicaragua

  • Index pulled down by low education quality or low adult literacy levels

Iraq

Bangladesh

Nepal

Malawi

  • 25 far from achieving EFA of which:
  • 16 in sub-Saharan Africa
  • 4 Arab States
  • 4 in South and West Asia
  • 1 in East Asia / Pacific

Mauritania

Yemen

Mozambique

1999

Ethiopia

2005

Chad

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

Education Development Index

increases in national spending on education
Increases in national spending on education

El Salvador

Madagascar

  • 50 out of 84 countries outside North America and Western Europe increased the share.
  • 18 out of 24 in sub-Saharan Africa

1999

Nepal

2005

Benin

Tajikistan

Mozambique

Mali

Kyrgyzstan

Czech Rep.

Colombia

  • 5% annual increase in public spending on education in sub-Saharan Africa and South and West Asia
  • Countries making significant progress towards UPE have generally increased their spending as a share of GNP

Burundi

Senegal

Mexico

Ghana

Poland

Hungary

Malawi

Ethiopia

Swaziland

Ukraine

Bolivia

Kenya

Morocco

Lesotho

0

2

4

6

8

10

Public expenditure

on education as a % of GNP

aid to education substantial increases
Aid to education:substantial increases

Aid to basic education doubled between 2000 and 2004, benefiting low-income countries, but declined in 2005

Total aid to education

Total aid to basic education

10.7

9.2

8.3

8.2

7.3

6.9

6.5

5.1

Constant 2005 US$ billions

4.0

3.7

Constant 2005 US$ billions

2.9

2.9

2.8

2.7

6.3

4.5

4.3

4.0

4.0

3.7

3.6

3.3

2.6

1.6

1.9

1.9

1.9

2.3

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Low income countries

All recipient countries

Low income countries

All recipient countries

Total aid includes allocations from budget support and aid to level unspecified

early childhood care and education acting on the benefits
Early childhood care and education:acting on the benefits

ECCE programmes improve child well-being and prepare children for school but:

1999

  • Provision of pre-primary education remains scarce across sub-Saharan Africa and Arab States

Sub-Saharan

Africa

2005

Arab States

Central Asia

South/West Asia

  • Lack of policies for under 3s
  • Programmes are not reaching the poorest and most disadvantaged children

East Asia/Pacific

Central/Eastern

Europe

Latin America

Caribbean

North America

Western Europe

0

20

40

60

80

100

GER in pre-primary education (%)

gender inequalities prevail
Gender inequalities prevail
  • 63% of countries have achieved gender parity in primary education; 37% in secondary education
  • 59 countries have achieved gender parity at both primary and secondary levels
  • Gender disparities in secondary education are greater than in primary; they favour girls as often as boys

Prim.

Sub-Saharan Africa

Sec.

Prim.

Arab States

Sec.

Prim.

South and West

Asia

Sec.

Prim.

Latin America

Caribbean

Sec.

Prim.

Central and Eastern

Europe

Sec.

Prim.

East Asia

and Pacific

Sec.

Prim.

Central Asia

Sec.

Prim.

North America

Western Europe

Sec.

0.70

0.80

0.90

1.00

1.10

Gender Parity Index in GER

geographic disparities
Geographic disparities

Progress in enrolment has rarely been uniform within countries. Geographic disparities in NER have increased in some countries

80

pre-Dakar

70

60

50

post-Dakar

Geographical disparity

40

30

20

10

0

Mali

Peru

India

Egypt

Brazil

Niger

Nepal

Benin

Bolivia

Kenya

Ghana

Eritrea

Mexico

Nigeria

Guinea

Zambia

Gambia

Burkina

Ethiopia

Senegal

Morocco

Colombia

Cambodia

Argentina

Indonesia

Zimbabwe

Philippines

Mauritania

Bangladesh

South Africa

Mozambique

U. R. Tanzania

minimal attention to adult literacy
Minimal attention to adult literacy

774 million adult illiterates

South/West Asia

  • Number of illiterate adults increased in sub-Saharan Africa and Arab States
  • 75% adult illiterates live in 15 countries
  • 64% are women
  • Direct assessments of literacy skills suggest even greater challenge

Sub-Saharan Africa

East Asia/Pacific

Arab States

Latin

America/Caribbean

Central/Eastern

Europe

North America/

Western Europe

1985-1994

1995-2004

Central Asia

0

100

200

300

400

500

Adult illiterates, million

indications of poor quality
Indications of poor quality
  • International and national learning assessments point to relatively low achievement in core subjects (language and mathematics), especially in developing countries
  • Low levels of learning achievement are related to :
  • socio-economic background
  • rural residence
  • lack of access to textbooks in school, books at home
  • insufficient and inefficient instructional time
  • inadequate physical infrastructure and material resources
  • More than 60% of countries allocate fewer than 800 yearly hours of instruction in grades 1 to 6
  • Survival rate to last grade improving but remains low in sub-Saharan Africa (63%) and in South and West Asia (79%)
teacher shortages

18 million new primary teachers needed by 2015

Teacher shortages

Teaching staff has not kept pace with enrolment increases in sub-Saharan Africa and South and West Asia

  • Contract teachers fill gap in francophone sub-Saharan Africa and South and West Asia. They receive lower salaries and less training than civil-servant teachers
  • Pupil/trained teachers ratios above 100 in Afghanistan, Chad, Madagascar, Mozambique and Nepal
financial resources remain limited in some countries
Financial resources remain limited in some countries
  • 34 out of 84 countries decreased the share of GNP to education since 1999, including some of those countries furthest from the EFA goals.
  • 24 out of 105 countries allocated less than 3% of GNP to education.
  • Several countries allocated less than 10% of total government spending to education
slide22

Strong variations in how much donors allocate to the basic level

Luxembourg

0.03

Total aid to

Greece

0.03

basic education

Switzerland

0.04

New Zealand

0.1

Portugal

0.1

Total aid to

Ireland

0.1

education

Finland

0.1

The three largest bilateral donors to education allocate less than one-third to the basic level

Italy

0.1

Austria

0.1

Australia

0.1

Sweden

0.1

Denmark

0.1

Belgium

0.2

Spain

0.2

Norway

0.2

Canada

0.2

Netherlands

0.6

United Kingdom

0.6

United States

0.7

Germany

0.8

Japan

1.0

France

1.5

IDB

0.0

FTI

0.0

UNICEF

0.1

AfDF

0.1

AsDF

0.3

European Commission

0.8

IDA

1.4

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

Constant 2005 US$ billion

reaching the right regions
Reaching the right regions

Sharp increase in South and West Asia’s share of aid commitments

Sub-Saharan Africa’s share dropped

Total aid to basic education

Other

9%

9%

7%

9%

Latin America and the Caribbean

9%

13%

11%

11%

East Asia and the Pacific

16%

31%

Arab States

South and West Asia

42%

34%

Sub-Saharan Africa

1999-2000

2004-2005

prospects for achieving upe by 2015
Prospects for achieving UPE by 2015

2025:

7

countries

2025:

6

countries

prospects for achieving gender parity by 2015
Prospects for achieving gender parity by 2015
  • 14 will not achieve parity in primary education
  • 51 will not achieve parity in secondary education
  • 29 will not achieve parity in both primary and secondary
  • 59 countries out of 172 had achieved gender parity in primary and secondary education by 2005
  • 19 countries are projected to achieve it by 2015

Out of 94 countries unlikely to achieve the goal by 2015:

promoting access
Promoting access

To offset the cost of schooling for poor households countries are:

  • Targeting poorer regions and population groups Brazil, Burkina Faso
  • Setting up education cash-transfer programmes Latin American countries, Kenya, Turkey
  • Providing scholarships for girls Bangladesh, Cambodia, Pakistan

Governments are also encouraging access through:

  • Flexible models for working children, enforced child labour legislation (218 million children still employed)
  • Inclusive education for the disabled
  • Bilingual education for children from indigenous communities
improving learning
Improving learning

Four broad policy areas

  • Trained and motivated teachers

Training models, professional development, incentives to work in underserved areas, policy frameworks for contract teachers

  • Effective teaching and learning strategies
  • Active learning, relevant curricula, HIV/AIDS education, importance of acquiring basic skills, better assessments
  • Learning time, materials and textbooks

Textbook production, unbiased learning content, free distribution to priority areas

  • Healthy and safe learning environment
  • Nutrition, health programmes, physical safety
attention to early childhood and literacy programmes for youth and adults
Attention to early childhood and literacy programmes for youth and adults

Good ECCE programmes offset disadvantage, improve children’s well-being and prepare them for primary school. Need for:

  • Programmes for children under age 3
  • Multi-sectoral policies
  • Expansion of pre-primary education
  • Raising qualifications, better training

Substantial scaling up of learning opportunities for youth and adults:

  • Setting targets in national plans
  • Partnerships with non-state sector
  • Strengthen status of non-formal education
  • Development of literate environments
summing up dakar s impact
Summing up Dakar’s impact

1. Effective national policies

2. Domestic spending

3. External aid

Educational

development

  • Rapid increase in number of children - girls and boys - enrolled in primary school in regions farthest from UPE
  • Rise in number of countries conducting national learning assessments
  • National policies targeting disadvantaged groups and areas
  • Measures to expand early childhood care and education
  • Increase in national spending on basic education in regions farthest from EFA
  • Increase in aid to basic education in low-income countries
  • Emergence of the Fast Track Initiative
  • More aid to basic education channelled through programmes rather than project support
five policy priorities
Five policy priorities
  • Inclusion
  • Quality
  • Literacy
  • Capacity Development
  • Financing
  • National commitment to increase education spending
  • Donor focus on:
  • low-income countries and fragile states
  • ongoing support to countries making progress towards EFA
slide33

The report, summary, regional overviews, statistics and additional resources are on line at:

www.efareport.unesco.org

efareport@unesco.org