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Abnormal Psychology. Overview. Is mental illness different from medical illness? How common is mental illness? How is mental illness diagnosed? Examples of mental disorders. The Mind-Body Problem. Is mental illness distinct from medical illness? Assumes a duality of mind and body

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Abnormal Psychology


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Abnormal Psychology

    2. Overview • Is mental illness different from medical illness? • How common is mental illness? • How is mental illness diagnosed? • Examples of mental disorders

    3. The Mind-Body Problem • Is mental illness distinct from medical illness? • Assumes a duality of mind and body • Reminder: everything we think and do is related to brain activity

    4. How Common is Mental Illness? • About 50% of the population experiences at least one mental illness. • Almost everyone will either have a mental illness or know somebody who does

    5. Diagnosing Psychological Disorders • Diagnosis has pros and cons • Reliability varies according to diagnostic method and type of disorder • Use of DSM-IV

    6. DSM-IV Axes • 1. Major Clinical Syndromes • 2. Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation • 3. General Medical Conditions • 4. Psychosocial and Environmental Problems • 5. Global Assessment of Functioning

    7. Examples of Axis I Disorders • Mood Disorders • Major Depressive Disorder • Anxiety Disorders • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder • Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders

    8. Major Depressive Disorder • bad mood • lack of interest or motivation • abnormal eating • abnormal sleeping • difficulty concentrating • feeling worthless • suicidal thoughts

    9. MDD: Possible Causes • Genetic predisposition • Neurotransmitter imbalance, e.g. insufficient serotonin • Stress and related hormonal changes, e.g. increased cortisol level • Learned Helplessness

    10. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder • obsessions: persistent, irrational thoughts • compulsions: impulses to perform repeated behaviors

    11. OCD: Possible Causes • Genetic predisposition • Neurotransmitter problem, e.g., underactive GABA system (inhibitory neurotransmitter) • Brain abnormality, e.g., decreased white matter (axons) • Learned response to reduce anxiety

    12. Schizophrenia • NOT “split personality” • Disordered thinking • Symptoms vary according to subtype

    13. Paranoid Schizophrenia • Delusions • Grandeur • Paranoia • Reference • Hallucinations, esp. auditory

    14. Catatonic Schizophrenia • Disordered movement • Rigidity • Wild movement

    15. Disorganized Schizophrenia • Disorganized speech • Loose associations • Neologisms • Hallucinations • Delusions • Inappropriate Affect

    16. Schizophrenia: Other Subtypes • Undifferentiated: pattern does not fall into any of the other categories • Residual: No current symptoms, but previous episodes of symptoms

    17. Schizophrenia: Possible Causes • Genetic predisposition • Abnormality in brain function/structure, e.g., frontal lobes • Early exposure to viruses • Abnormal dopamine system • Too much: positive symptoms • Too little: negative symptoms