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Chapter 7: Relational Database Design

- First Normal Form
- Pitfalls in Relational Database Design
- Functional Dependencies
- Decomposition
- Boyce-Codd Normal Form
- Third Normal Form
- (Multivalued Dependencies and Fourth Normal Form)
- (Overall Database Design Process)

First Normal Form

- Domain is atomic if its elements are considered to be indivisible units
- Examples of non-atomic domains:
- Set of names, composite attributes
- Identification numbers like CS101 that can be broken up into parts
- A relational schema R is in first normal form if the domains of all attributes of R are atomic
- Non-atomic values complicate storage and encourage redundant (repeated) storage of data
- E.g. Instead of a separate relation depositor set of accounts stored with each customer, and set of owners stored with each account
- In this chapter, we assume all relations are in first normal form

First Normal Form (Cont.)

- Atomicity is actually a property of how the elements of the domain are used.
- Strings would normally be considered indivisible
- But Suppose that students are given roll numbers which are strings of the form CS0012 or EE1127
- If the first two characters are extracted to find the department, the domain of roll numbers is not atomic.
- Doing so is a bad idea: leads to encoding of information in application program rather than in the database.

Pitfalls in Relational Database Design

- Relational database design requires that we find a “good” collection of relation schemas.
- A bad design may lead to
- Repetition of Information.
- Inability to represent certain information.

Example

- Consider the relation schema:Lending-schema = (branch-name, branch-city, assets, customer-name, loan-number, amount)
- Redundancy
- Data for branch-name, branch-city, assets are repeated for each loan that a branch makes
- Wastes space
- Complicates updating, introducing possibility of inconsistency of assets value
- Null values
- Cannot store information about a branch if no loans exist
- Can use null values but, difficult to handle.

Goal — Devise a Theory for the Following

- Decide whether a particular relation R is in “good” form.
- In the case that a relation R is not in “good” form, decompose it into a set of relations {R1, R2, ..., Rn} such that
- each relation is in good form
- the decomposition is a lossless-join decomposition
- Our theory is based on:
- functional dependencies
- multivalued dependencies

Functional Dependencies

- A key role in differentiating good database designs from bad database designs.
- A functional dependency is a generalization of the notion of a key.
- FDs are constraints on the set of legal relations.
- Require that the value for a certain set of attributes determines uniquely the value for another set of attributes.

Functional Dependencies (Cont.)

- Let R be a relation schema

R and R

- The functional dependency

holds onR if and only if for any legal relations r(R), whenever any two tuples t1and t2 of r agree on the attributes , they also agree on the attributes . That is,

t1[] = t2 [] t1[ ] = t2 [ ]

- Example: Consider r(A,B) with the following instance of r.
- On this instance, AB does NOT hold, but BA does hold.

- 4
- 1 5
- 3 7

Functional Dependencies (Cont.)

- K is a superkey for relation schema R if and only if K R
- K is a candidate key for R if and only if
- K R, and
- for no K, R
- FDs allow us to express constraints that cannot be expressed using superkeys.
- Consider the schema:

Loan-info-schema = (customer-name, loan-number, branch-name, amount).

The set of functional dependencies that we expect to hold:

loan-numberamount loan-number branch-name

but would not expect the following to hold:

loan-number customer-name

(e.g. a loan - husband-wife pair)

Use of Functional Dependencies

- We shall use FDs in two ways
- To test relations to see whether they are legal under a given set of functional dependencies.
- If a relation r is legal under a set F of functional dependencies, we say that rsatisfies F.
- To specify constraints on the set of legal relations
- We say that Fholds onR if all legal relations on R satisfy the set of F.
- Note
- A specific instance of a relation schema may satisfy a FD even if the FD does not hold on all legal instances.
- E.g. a specific instance of Loan-schema may, by chance, satisfy loan-number customer-name.

Functional Dependencies (Cont.)

- Some functional dependency are said to be trivial if they are satisfied by all relations.
- E.g.
- customer-name, loan-number customer-name
- customer-name customer-name
- In general, a FD is trivial if

Closure of a Set of Functional Dependencies

- Given a set F of FDs, we can prove that certain other FDs hold. We say that such FDs are “logically implied” by F.
- E.g. If A B and B C, then we can infer that A C
- The set of all FDs logically implied by F is the closure of F.
- We denote the closure of F by F+.
- We can find all ofF+by applying Armstrong’s axioms:
- If , then (reflexivity)
- If , then (augmentation)
- If , and , then (transitivity)
- sound and complete
- Rules from Armstrong’s axioms:
- If and , then (union rule)
- If , then and (decomposition rule)
- If and δ, then δ (pseudotransitivity rule)

Example

- R = (A, B, C, G, H, I)F = { A BA CCG HCG IB H }
- Some members of F+
- A H
- By transitivity from A B and B H
- AG I
- Pseudotransitivity rule from A C and CG I
- By augmenting A C with G, to get AG CG and then transitivity with CG I
- CG HI
- Union rule from CG H and CG I
- Augmentation of CG I to infer CG CGI, augmentation ofCG H to inferCGI HI, and then transitivity

To compute the closure of a set of F:

F+ = Frepeatfor each FD f in F+ apply reflexivity and augmentation rules on fadd the resulting FDs to F+for each pair of FDs f1and f2 in F+iff1 and f2 can be combined using transitivitythen add the resulting FD to F+until F+ does not change any further

Procedure for Computing F+Closure of Attribute Sets

- Given a set of attributes a, define the closureof aunderF (denoted by a+) as

the set of attributes that are functionally determined by a under F:

ais in F a+

- Algorithm to compute a+

result := a;while (changes to result) do for each in F do begin if result then result := result end

Example of Attribute Set Closure

- R = (A, B, C, G, H, I)
- F = { A BA CCG HCG IB H }
- (AG)+

1. result = AG

2. result = ABCG (A C and A B)

3. result = ABCGH (CG H and CG ABCG)

4. result = ABCGHI (CG I and CG ABCGH)

Testing for superkey

To test if is a superkey, we compute +, and check if + contains all attributes of R.

Testing functional dependencies

To check if a FD holds (in other words, is in F+), just check if +.

That is, we compute + by using attribute closure, and then check if it contains .

Computing closure of F

For each R, we find the closure +, and for each S +, we output a functional dependency S.

Uses of Attribute ClosureCanonical Cover

- Sets of FDs may have redundant dependencies that can be inferred from the others
- E.g. A C is redundant in {A B, B C, A C}
- Parts of a functional dependency may be redundant
- E.g. {A B, B C, A CD} can be simplified to

{A B, B C, A D}

- Intuitively, a canonical cover of F is a “minimal” set of functional dependencies equivalent to F, with no redundant dependencies or having redundant parts of dependencies

Extraneous Attributes

- Consider a set F and the FD in F
- If A , to check attribute A is extraneous

let = -{A}, and check if can be inferred from F.

(compute + under F, check if + includes all attributes in )

- If A , to check attribute A is extraneous

consider F’ = (F – {}) {(– A)} and check if A can be inferred from F’.

(compute + under F’, check if + includes A)

- Example: Given F = {AC, ABC }
- B is extraneous in AB C

because AC logically implies ABC.

- Example: Given F = {AC, ABCD}
- C is extraneous in ABCD

since ABC can be inferred even after deleting C

Canonical Cover

- A canonical coverfor F is a set of dependencies Fc such that
- F logically implies all dependencies in Fc, and
- Fclogically implies all dependencies in F, and
- No functional dependency in Fccontains an extraneous attribute, and
- Each left side of functional dependency in Fcis unique.
- To compute a canonical cover for F:Fc=F repeatUse the union rule to replace any dependencies in Fc11 and 12 with 112 Find a functional dependency with an extraneous attribute either in or in If an extraneous attribute is found, delete it from until Fc does not change

Example

- R = (A, B, C)F = { A BC B C A BABC }
- Combine A BC and A B into A BC
- Set is now {A BC, B C, ABC}
- A is extraneous in ABC because BC logically implies AB C.
- Set is now {A BC, B C}
- C is extraneous in ABC since A BC is logically implied by A B and B C.
- The canonical cover is:

A B B C

- Note: canonical cover might not be unique.

Decomposition

- Decompose the relation schema Lending-schema into:

Branch-schema = (branch-name, branch-city,assets)

Loan-info-schema = (customer-name, loan-number, branch-name, amount)

- All attributes of an original schema (R) must appear in the decomposition (R1, R2):

R = R1 R2

- Lossless-join decomposition.For all possible relations r on schema R

r = R1 (r) R2 (r)

- A decomposition of R into R1 and R2 is lossless join if and only if at least one of the following dependencies is in F+:
- R1 R2R1
- R1 R2R2

Normalization Using Functional Dependencies

- When we decompose a relation schema R with a set of F into R1, R2,.., Rn we want
- Lossless-join decomposition: Otherwise decomposition would result in information loss.
- No redundancy: The relations Ripreferably should be in either Boyce-Codd Normal Form or Third Normal Form.
- Dependency preservation: Let Fibe the set of dependencies F+ that include only attributes in Ri.
- Preferably the decomposition should be dependency preserving, that is, (F1 F2 … Fn)+ = F+
- Otherwise, checking updates for violation of functional dependencies may require computing joins, which is expensive.

Example

- R = (A, B, C)F = {A B, B C)
- R1 = (A, B), R2 = (B, C)
- Lossless-join decomposition:

R1 R2 = {B} and B BC

- Dependency preserving
- R1 = (A, B), R2 = (A, C)
- Lossless-join decomposition:

R1 R2 = {A} and A AB

- Not dependency preserving (cannot check B C without computing R1 R2)

Boyce-Codd Normal Form

- is trivial (i.e., )
- is a superkey for R

A relation schema R is in BCNF with respect to a set F of FDs

if for all functional dependencies in F+ of the form ,

where R and R,at least one of the following holds:

Example

- R = (A, B, C)F = {AB B C}Key = {A}
- R is not in BCNF
- Decomposition R1 = (A, B), R2 = (B, C)
- R1and R2 in BCNF
- Lossless-join decomposition
- Dependency preserving

Third Normal Form

- There are some situations where
- BCNF is not dependency preserving, and
- Efficient checking for FD violation on updates is important
- Solution: Define a weaker normal form, called Third Normal Form.
- Allows some redundancy
- But, FDs can be checked on individual relations without computing a join.
- There is always a lossless-join, dependency-preserving decomposition into 3NF.

- A relation schema R is in third normal form (3NF) if for all:

in F+at least one of the following holds:

- is trivial (i.e., )
- is a superkey for R
- Each attribute A in – is contained in a candidate key for R.

(NOTE: each attribute may be in a different candidate key)

- If a relation is in BCNF it is in 3NF.
- Third condition is a minimal relaxation of BCNF to ensure dependency preservation

Example

- R = (J, K, L)F = {JK L, L K}
- Two candidate keys: JK and JL
- R is in 3NF

JK L JK is a superkey

L K K is contained in a candidate key

Design Goals

- Goal for a relational database design is:
- BCNF
- Lossless join
- Dependency preservation
- If we cannot achieve this, we accept one of
- Lack of dependency preservation
- Redundancy due to use of 3NF

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