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Improving Adolescent Literacy: Five Recommendations. THREE TASKS IN ADOLESCENT LITERACY. RAISE EXPECTATIONS INCREASE CAPACITY MEASURE and REPORT PROGRESS. ACT. (2008). The Forgotten Middle. (p. 18). READING NEXT: INSTRUCTION. Direct, explicit comprehension instruction

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three tasks in adolescent literacy
THREE TASKS IN ADOLESCENT LITERACY
  • RAISE EXPECTATIONS
  • INCREASE CAPACITY
  • MEASURE and REPORT PROGRESS

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

act 2008 the forgotten middle p 18
ACT. (2008). The Forgotten Middle. (p. 18)

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

reading next instruction
READING NEXT: INSTRUCTION
  • Direct, explicit comprehension instruction
  • Instruction embedded in content
  • Motivation and self-directed learning
  • Text-based collaborative learning

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

reading next instruction1
READING NEXT: INSTRUCTION
  • Strategic tutoring
  • Diverse texts
  • Intensive writing
  • Technology component
  • Ongoing formative assessment

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

reading next infrastructure
READING NEXT: INFRASTRUCTURE
  • Extended time for literacy
  • Professional development
  • Summative assessment
  • Teacher teams
  • Leadership
  • Comprehensive coordinated literacy program

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slide7
NOT ALL OF THEM ALL THE TIME

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slide8
READING NEXT available:
  • http://www.all4ed.org/publication_material/adlit
  • WRITING NEXT available (same location

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cognitive targets
COGNITIVE TARGETS

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cognitive targets1
COGNITIVE TARGETS

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

naep 2009 reading framework
NAEP 2009 READING FRAMEWORK

http://www.nagb.org/publications/frameworks/reading09.pdf

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different types of recommendations
DIFFERENT TYPES OF RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Consensus
    • READING NEXT
  • Evidence-based
    • Practice Guides
    • Meta-analyses

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strong evidence
STRONG EVIDENCE
  • Studies with high internal and external validity
  • Systematic review of research that meets WWC standards
  • No contradictory evidence of similar quality

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

strong evidence1
STRONG EVIDENCE
  • Several well-designed, randomized controlled trials or quasi-experiments that generally meet WWC standards
  • One large, well-designed, randomized controlled, multisite trial that meets WWC standards
  • No contradictory evidence of similar quality

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

moderate evidence
MODERATE EVIDENCE
  • Studies that support strong causal conclusions but generalization is uncertain
  • Studies that support the relationship but where causality is uncertain
  • Experiments or quasi-experiments meeting WWC standards with limited generalizability
  • No contrary evidence

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

moderate evidence1
MODERATE EVIDENCE
  • Comparison group studies not meeting WWC standards but
    • (a) consistently show enhanced outcomes
    • (b) have no major flaws
  • Correlational research with strong statistical controls for selection bias
  • No contrary evidence

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

low evidence
LOW EVIDENCE
  • Expert opinion
    • derived from strong findings or theories in related areas.
    • based on evidence that does not rise to moderate or strong levels.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

five recommendations
FIVE RECOMMENDATIONS

First three are about strategies teachers can incorporate into instruction.

The fourth is about strategies for improving students’ motivation and engagement.

The fifth is about remedies for struggling readers—usually not in class.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

provide explicit vocabulary instruction
PROVIDE EXPLICIT VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION
  • Devote time to explicit instruction
  • Expose new words in multiple contexts

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

provide explicit vocabulary instruction1
PROVIDE EXPLICIT VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION
  • New vocabulary in multiple contexts
  • Independent vocabulary learning

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

potential roadblock
POTENTIAL ROADBLOCK
  • Teachers may not know how to select words to teach, especially in content areas.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

one solution
ONE SOLUTION
  • Vocabulary should be selected on the basis of how important the words are for learning in a discipline, NOT the tier in which the word is located.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

direct explicit comprehension strategy instruction
DIRECT EXPLICIT COMPREHENSION STRATEGY INSTRUCTION
  • Select carefully the text to use when teaching a strategy.
  • Show students how to apply strategies to different texts.
  • Use text appropriate for the reading level of students.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

direct explicit comprehension strategy instruction1
DIRECT EXPLICIT COMPREHENSION STRATEGY INSTRUCTION
  • Use direct explicit instruction lessons to teach strategies.
  • Provide the appropriate amount of guided practice.
  • Talk about comprehension strategies while teaching them.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

potential roadblock1
POTENTIAL ROADBLOCK
  • Most teachers lack the skills to provide direct and explicit comprehension strategy instruction.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

one solution1
ONE SOLUTION
  • Professional development in explicit instruction of comprehension strategies will assist all teachers (language arts and content-areas) in teaching. Coaching is a good example.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

extended discussion of text meaning and interpretation
EXTENDED DISCUSSION OF TEXT MEANING AND INTERPRETATION
  • Select engaging materials and develop stimulating questions.
  • Ask questions to provide continuity and extend discussion.
  • Use a specific “discussion protocol.”

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meta analysis
META-ANALYSIS

Murphy, K., Wilkinson, I., Soter, A., Hennesey, M. & Alexander, J. (In Press). Examining the effects of classroom discussion on students’ comprehension of text: a meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

three types of discussion
THREE TYPES OF DISCUSSION
  • Efferent
    • Unpacking the facts of the text
  • Aesthetic
    • Expressive—affective response—“say what you think”
  • Critical/Analytic
    • Debate ideas
    • Interrogate the text, author, issue

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conclusions
CONCLUSIONS
  • Few approaches increased literal or inferential comprehension and critical-thinking and reasoning.
  • Efferent discussions increase student talk and comprehension more than other types.
  • The amount of time was related to success.
  • Greatest effects for below-average and average ability students.
  • Putting students into groups to talk is not enough to enhance comprehension and learning.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

potential roadblock2
POTENTIAL ROADBLOCK
  • Teachers lack the skills in behavior management, discussion techniques, or critical thinking to guide productive discussion and analysis of text meanings.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

one solution2
ONE SOLUTION
  • Content-area teachers should experience these kinds of discussions themselves as a way of learning what it feels like to participate in effective, open discussions.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

increase motivation and engagement
INCREASE MOTIVATION AND ENGAGEMENT
  • Meaningful and engaging content learning goals around the essential ideas of a discipline.
  • Provide a positive environment that promotes student autonomy in learning.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

increase motivation and engagement1
INCREASE MOTIVATION AND ENGAGEMENT
  • Make literacy experiences more relevant.
  • Promote higher reading engagement and conceptual learning.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

potential roadblock3
POTENTIAL ROADBLOCK
  • Some teachers think that motivational activities must entertain students and often create “fun” activities that are not necessarily focused on learning.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

one solution3
ONE SOLUTION
  • Teachers should closely connect instruction and student performance to learning goals.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

individualized interventions for struggling readers
INDIVIDUALIZED INTERVENTIONS FOR STRUGGLING READERS
  • Screening assessments to identify students with reading difficulties.
  • Formal and informal assessments to pinpoint students’ instructional needs.
  • Intervention that provides an explicit instructional focus for each student.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

individualized interventions for struggling readers1
INDIVIDUALIZED INTERVENTIONS FOR STRUGGLING READERS
  • Greater instructional need, more intensive intervention.
  • Intensity of interventions is related to size of instructional groups and instructional time.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

potential roadblock4
POTENTIAL ROADBLOCK
  • Some middle and high schools may not have the specialized personnel, time, and resources to conduct efficient screening to identify students’ reading needs.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

one solution4
ONE SOLUTION
  • Results from standardized tests can be used to determine which students are reading below grade level. Classroom teachers can administer group screening tests that will identify students who may have reading problems.

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

practice guides
PRACTICE GUIDES
  • Available at:

http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/ practiceguides/adlit_pg_082608.pdf

High School Redesign Institute, Baton Rouge

dww goal
DWW Goal

Translate research-based practices into practical toolsthat support and improve classroom instruction

website tour
Website Tour

Research base/Instructional presentations

Expert interviews

  • School site videos and slideshows
  • Interviews and sample materials from schools
  • Tools and templates to implement practices
slide49
THE END

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