UNIVERSITAS PRETORIENSIS SIGILLUM o. 4 Logic*. *This section from Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL) [online] Available: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/659/1/ http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/659/02/
*This section from Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL) [online] Available:
5 Theory of Science*
All A are B. C is B. Therefore C is A.
called “affirming the consequent”, and is deductively invalid
If H and A1, A2, …. An is true, then I is true.
But I is not true.
Therefore H and A1, A2, …. An are false.
*This section from Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Theory of Science, Mälardalens Högskola, Sweden: 2003.
If H is true, then so are A1, A2, …. An.
But A1, A2, …. An are true.
Thus H is true.
If an argument is not built correctly, then the argument contains a formal fallacy.
False Cause (inferred causal relationship)
Composition(attributes of parts applied to whole)
Division(attributes of whole applied to parts)
Appeal to emotion
Proof by forward reference
“The uses of fallacy” :
proof by non-existent reference
proof by assignment
the delayed lemma
by oral tradition,etc.
Theory of Science
By lander group 3
Star date 2847 . 98945 . 98
With apology to Paul A Weiss 
Close inspection of one earthian revealed writhing and wriggling movement inside, most probably part of metabolism …
Daybreak revealed different sizes and ages of earthians; older ones infested with parasites in large numbers. Small young ones only one parasite.
Caring activities of parasites indicate symbiotic relationship with earthians.
Some earthians also have their thinking machines in their backsides as on our planet…
Mating behaviour seems to be extremely violent, at least one of the participants remaining motionless for some time. Parasites become extremely agitated.
We were unable to determine the gestation pertiod …