America Becomes a Colonial Power. 1. Business Interests-new markets and raw materials. U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908. 1. Business Interests. American Foreign Trade: 1870-1914. 2. Military/Strategic Goals. Alfred T. Mahan The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783.
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U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908
American Foreign Trade:1870-1914
A leading expansionist, Captain Alfred T. Mahan, cautioned that the Pacific could "be entered and controlled only by a vigorous contest." As head of the Naval War College, Mahan believed that America's survival depended upon a strong navy.
The White Man’sBurden
The Hierarchyof Race
By Rudyard Kipling
McClure's Magazine 12 (Feb. 1899).
American Missionariesin China, 1905
Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s
Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.
Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
1875 – Reciprocity Treaty
1890 – McKinley Tariff
1893 –Americanbusinessmen backed anuprising against Queen Liliuokalani.
Sanford Ballard Doleproclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.
Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898
Hearst to Frederick Remington:You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!
William Randolph Hearst
What does this one tell us about Yellow Journalism and the causes of war with Spain?
Dupuy de Lôme, SpanishAmbassador to the U.S.
Criticized PresidentMcKinley as weak and abidder for the admirationof the crowd, besidesbeing a would-be politicianwho tries to leave a dooropen behind himself whilekeeping on good termswith the jingoes of hisparty.
Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
Build-up to War
•JanB - USS Maine was ordered to Havana harbor
•15 Feb - USS Maine mysteriously blew up in Havana harbor
•19-20 Apr - War was declared against Spain
Assistant Secretary of the Navy
Imperialist and American nationalist.
Criticized PresidentMcKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair!
Orders the US Pacific fleet to attack the Spanish fleet in the Philippines
The Tough Guy
Cuba falls to US in 3 months
Leader of the FilipinoUprising against the Spanish.
Cuba was freed from Spanish rule.
Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island ofGuam.
The U. S. paid Spain$20 mil. for thePhilippines.
The U. S. becomesan imperial power!
The Oregon Volunteer Infantry in 1899
Filipino dead in their trench
A picture of a “water detail,” reportedly taken in May, 1901, in Sual, the Philippines. “It is a terrible torture,” one soldier wrote.
In 1899, the Anti-Imperialist League is Founded.
Members include William Jennings Bryan, Mark Twain, and Andrew Carnegie.
Founded in 1899.
Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, WilliamJames, and WilliamJennings Bryan amongthe leaders.
Campaigned against the annexation of thePhilippines and otheracts of imperialism.
April 1, 1901 – Aguinaldo swears an oath of loyalty to the United States.
“Let the stream of blood cease to flow; let there be an end to tears and desolation.”
Fighting continues until Filipino General Miguel Malvar for one more year.
Teller Amendment (1898)
Platt Amendment (1903)
Senator Orville Platt
Secretary John Hay.
Give all nations equalaccess to trade in China.
Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by any one foreign power.
The Peaceful Harmonious Fists.
“55 Days at Peking.”
1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.
1901 Hay-Paunceforte Treaty.
Philippe Bunau-Varilla,agent provocateur.
Dr. Walter Reed.
Colonel W. Goethals.
1903 Hay-Bunau- Varilla Treaty.
TR in Panama(Construction begins in 1904)
Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power .
Nobel Peace Prize for Teddy
Improve financialopportunities for American businesses.
Use private capital tofurther U. S. interestsoverseas.
Therefore, the U.S. should create stability and order abroad that would best promote America’s commercial interests.
Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico and puts Madero in prison where he was murdered.
Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, EmilianoZapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against Huerta.
The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz and Huerta fled the country.
Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico.
Francisco I Madero
The U. S. shouldbe the conscienceof the world.
General John J. Pershing with PanchoVilla in 1914.
The Japanese View of Commodore Perry
A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports tolaborers entering the U.S.
Japan recognized the U.S.right to exclude Japaneseimmigrants holding passportsissued by other countries.
The U.S. government got theschool board of San Francisco to rescind their order tosegregate Asians in separateschools.
1908 Root-Takahira Agreement.
Senator Henry CabotLodge, Sr. (R-MA)
Non-European powers,like Japan, would beexcluded from owningterritory in the WesternHemisphere.