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America Becomes a Colonial Power. 1. Business Interests-new markets and raw materials. U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908. 1. Business Interests. American Foreign Trade: 1870-1914. 2. Military/Strategic Goals. Alfred T. Mahan  The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783.

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a Colonial



1. Business Interests-new markets and raw materials

U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908


1. Business Interests

American Foreign Trade:1870-1914


2. Military/Strategic Goals

Alfred T. Mahan  The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783

captain afred thayer mahan
Captain Afred Thayer Mahan

A leading expansionist, Captain Alfred T. Mahan, cautioned that the Pacific could "be entered and controlled only by a vigorous contest." As head of the Naval War College, Mahan believed that America's survival depended upon a strong navy.

mahan continued
He argued that a strong navy would require island possessions to serve as naval bases.

The time had come, Mahan wrote, for Americans to turn their "eyes outward, instead of inward only, to seek the welfare of the country."

Mahan Continued

2. Military/Strategic Goals

Alfred T. Mahan  The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783


3. Social Darwinist Thinking

The White Man’sBurden

The Hierarchyof Race


The White Man's Burden

By Rudyard Kipling

McClure's Magazine 12 (Feb. 1899).

  • Take up the White Man's burden--
    • Send forth the best ye breed--
  • Go, bind your sons to exile
    • To serve your captives' need;

4. Religious/Missionary Interests

American Missionariesin China, 1905




of the



U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii

Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s


U. S. View of Hawaiians

Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.


Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani

Hawaii for the Hawaiians!


U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii

1875 – Reciprocity Treaty

1890 – McKinley Tariff

1893 –Americanbusinessmen backed anuprising against Queen Liliuokalani.

Sanford Ballard Doleproclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.


To The Victor Belongs the Spoils

Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898


“Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism

Joseph Pulitzer

Hearst to Frederick Remington:You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!

William Randolph Hearst


De Lôme Letter

Dupuy de Lôme, SpanishAmbassador to the U.S.

Criticized PresidentMcKinley as weak and abidder for the admirationof the crowd, besidesbeing a would-be politicianwho tries to leave a dooropen behind himself whilekeeping on good termswith the jingoes of hisparty.


Remember the Maineand to Hell with Spain!

Funeral for Maine victims in Havana


Remember the Maine

Build-up to War

•JanB - USS Maine was ordered to Havana harbor

•15 Feb - USS Maine mysteriously blew up in Havana harbor

•19-20 Apr - War was declared against Spain


Theodore Roosevelt

Assistant Secretary of the Navy

Imperialist and American nationalist.

Criticized PresidentMcKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair!

Orders the US Pacific fleet to attack the Spanish fleet in the Philippines



The Tough Guy





Emilio Aguinaldo

Leader of the FilipinoUprising against the Spanish.


The Treaty of Paris: 1898

Cuba was freed from Spanish rule.

Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island ofGuam.

The U. S. paid Spain$20 mil. for thePhilippines.

The U. S. becomesan imperial power!



Philippine Question



But why?

the philippine american war 1899 1902
The Philippine-American War1899 - 1902
  • U.S. refuses to recognize Filipino independence.
  • War Estimates
    • Filipino Forces = 100,000 men
    • U.S. Forces = 74,000 men
  • Filipino Goal
    • Inflict constant casualties on U.S. troops and get the US to give up

The Oregon Volunteer Infantry in 1899

guerrilla war phase 1900 1902
Guerrilla War Phase 1900-1902
  • Low on ammunition, Filippinos abandon conventional warfare.
  • American tactics
    • Take no prisoners
    • Burning villages
    • Concentration Camps
    • Torture prisoners for


Filipino dead in their trench

the water cure
The Water Cure

A picture of a “water detail,” reportedly taken in May, 1901, in Sual, the Philippines. “It is a terrible torture,” one soldier wrote.

the anti war protestors
The Anti-War Protestors

In 1899, the Anti-Imperialist League is Founded.

Members include William Jennings Bryan, Mark Twain, and Andrew Carnegie.


The American Anti-Imperialist League

Founded in 1899.

Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, WilliamJames, and WilliamJennings Bryan amongthe leaders.

Campaigned against the annexation of thePhilippines and otheracts of imperialism.

aguinaldo is captured
Aguinaldo is Captured

April 1, 1901 – Aguinaldo swears an oath of loyalty to the United States.

“Let the stream of blood cease to flow; let there be an end to tears and desolation.”

Fighting continues until Filipino General Miguel Malvar for one more year.

legacy of the philippine american war
Legacy of the Philippine-American War
  • Deaths
    • U.S. = 4,326 soldiers (mostly from disease)
    • Filipinos(?) = 34,000 soldiers; 200,000 civilians
  • Philippines will remain an important naval base for U.S. through World War II
  • Philippines will gain independence on July 4, 1946.

What about Cuban Independence?

Teller Amendment (1898)

Platt Amendment (1903)

  • Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence.
  • The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt.
  • Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station.
  • Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.

Senator Orville Platt





Puerto Rico: 1898

  • 1900 - Foraker Act.
    • PR became an “unincorporated territory.”
    • Citizens of PR, not of the US.
  • 1901-1903  the Insular Cases.
    • Constitutional rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions.
    • Congress had the power to decide these rights.

Puerto Rico and Guam: 1898

  • 1917 – Jones Act.
    • Gave full territorial status to PR and Guam.
    • Removed tariff duties on PR goods coming into the US.
    • PRs elected theirown legislators &governor to enforcelocal laws.
    • PRs could NOT votein US presidentialelections.
    • A resident commissioner was sent to Washington to vote for PR in the House.

The Open Door Policy-1899

Secretary John Hay.

Give all nations equalaccess to trade in China.

Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by any one foreign power.


The Boxer Rebellion: 1900

The Peaceful Harmonious Fists.

“55 Days at Peking.”


Panama: The King’s Crown

1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.

1901  Hay-Paunceforte Treaty.

Philippe Bunau-Varilla,agent provocateur.

Dr. Walter Reed.

Colonel W. Goethals.

1903  Hay-Bunau- Varilla Treaty.


Panama Canal

TR in Panama(Construction begins in 1904)


The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905

Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power .






Treaty of Portsmouth: 1905

Nobel Peace Prize for Teddy


Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy”

Improve financialopportunities for American businesses.

Use private capital tofurther U. S. interestsoverseas.

Therefore, the U.S. should create stability and order abroad that would best promote America’s commercial interests.


The Mexican Revolution: 1910s

Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico and puts Madero in prison where he was murdered.

Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, EmilianoZapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against Huerta.

The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz and Huerta fled the country.

Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico.


The Mexican Revolution: 1910s

Emiliano Zapata

Pancho Villa

Venustiano Carranza

Porfirio Diaz

Francisco I Madero


Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy”

The U. S. shouldbe the conscienceof the world.

Spread democracy.

Promote peace.

Condemn colonialism.


Searching for Banditos

General John J. Pershing with PanchoVilla in 1914.


Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Up Japan: 1853

The Japanese View of Commodore Perry


Gentleman’s Agreement: 1908

A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports tolaborers entering the U.S.

Japan recognized the U.S.right to exclude Japaneseimmigrants holding passportsissued by other countries.

The U.S. government got theschool board of San Francisco to rescind their order tosegregate Asians in separateschools.

1908  Root-Takahira Agreement.


Lodge Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1912

Senator Henry CabotLodge, Sr. (R-MA)

Non-European powers,like Japan, would beexcluded from owningterritory in the WesternHemisphere.