Berachah Bible Institute Hebrew Grammar I - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Berachah Bible Institute Hebrew Grammar I

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Berachah Bible Institute Hebrew Grammar I

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  1. Berachah Bible InstituteHebrew Grammar I Chapter 7: Hebrew Adjectives

  2. Hebrew Adjectives BBIHebrew Grammar I Section 7.1 – Introduction Function just like English adjectives • Limit nouns • May be used in one of three ways • Attributive AdjectivesThe red ball • Predicate AdjectivesThe ball is red • Substantive AdjectivesRed is a color

  3. Hebrew Adjectives BBIHebrew Grammar I Section 7.2 – Inflection of Adjectives Adjectives must match the noun they modify in both gender and number Thus, adjectives may be either masculine or feminine and either singular or plural.(* dual nouns are matched with plural adjectives) Adjective endings match noun endings. See page 61 of book.

  4. Note: Dual noun matched with plural adjective Hebrew Adjectives BBIHebrew Grammar I Section 7.3 – Notes on Inflection 1. Adjectives must agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify. M F vAdq' yAg hb'Aj #r<a, S ~yvidoq. ~yIm: tAbAj tAlWtB. P

  5. Hebrew Adjectives BBIHebrew Grammar I Section 7.3 – Notes on Inflection (cont.) 2. Plural adjectives are singular in translation value unless used substantively. • Attributive AdjectivesA wise king OR Wise kings~k'x' %l,m,ñ ~ymik'x] ~ykil'm. • Predicate Adjectivesa king is wise OR Kings are wise%l,m,ñ ~k'x' ~ykil'm. ~ymik'x] • Substantive AdjectivesA wise person OR Wise people~k'x' ~ymik'x]

  6. Hebrew Adjectives BBIHebrew Grammar I Section 7.3 – Notes on Inflection (cont.) 3. Adjectives undergo vowel changes when the inflectional endings are added. Good Ship Hebrew E.g,~k'x'~ymik'x]

  7. Hebrew Adjectives BBIHebrew Grammar I Section 7.4 – Use of Adjectives First, review their three uses: • Attributive AdjectivesThe red ball • Predicate AdjectivesThe ball is red • Substantive AdjectivesRed is a color

  8. Hebrew Adjectives BBIHebrew Grammar I Section 7.4 – Use of Adjectives (cont.) How do you know how an adjective is being used? 1) Attributive (The red ball) • Follows the noun • Agrees with noun in number and gender • Agrees with noun in definiteness 2) Predicate (The ball is red) • May precede or follow the noun • Agrees with noun in number and gender • Does not have the definite article (may or may not match noun) 3) Substantive (Red is a color) • No noun for it to modify • No noun for it to agree with • May or may not have the definite article

  9. Hebrew Adjectives BBIHebrew Grammar I Section 7.4 – Use of Adjectives (cont.) Some definitive questions you can ask (in this order)… 1) Is there a noun for the adjective to modify? If not, SUBSTANTIVE 2) Does the adjective precede the noun? If so, PREDICATIVE 3) Does the adjective have the definite article? If so, ATTRIBUTIVE 4) Does the noun have the definite article? If so, PREDICATIVE If none of these questions work, that means… 1) There a noun for the adjective to modify. 2) The adjective follows the noun 3) Neither the adjective nor the noun has the definite article. Must examine the context…

  10. Hebrew Adjectives BBIHebrew Grammar I Section 7.4 – Use of Adjectives (cont.) daughters two And to Laban [were] tAn=b' yTeäv. !b"ßl'l.W Leah the great one [was] The name of ha'êle ‘hl'doG>h; ~veÛ Rachel the small one [was] And thename of lxe(r" hN"ßj;Q.h; ~veîw> Gen 29:16

  11. Hebrew Adjectives BBIHebrew Grammar I Section 7.4 – Use of Adjectives (cont.) with me to lie to me He came in yMiê[i bK;äv.li ‘yl;ae aB'Û great with a sound and I cried out lAd)G" lAqïB. ar"Þq.a,w" Grammatically, could be “with a sound is great” “with a great sound” Gen 39:14

  12. Hebrew Adjectives BBIHebrew Grammar I Section 7.4 – Use of Adjectives (cont.) very great Moses The man ‘daom. lAdÜG" hv,ªmo vyaiäh' Egypt in the land of ~yIr:êc.mi #r<a,äB. Grammatically, could be “The man was a very great Moses” “The man Moses was very great” Exod 11:13

  13. Hebrew Adjectives BBIHebrew Grammar I Section 7.5 – Lexical Form To find an adjective in the lexicon (dictionary), you must look for the masculine, singular form. ~yqiAxr> qAxr" tAqAxr> qAxr" hq"Axr> qAxr"

  14. Hebrew Adjectives BBIHebrew Grammar I Section 7.6 – Directional Ending • Don’t be confused…Has nothing to do with Hebrew Adjectives. • But, you have to talk about it somewhere… • When you add a non-accented h 'on the end of a noun, it is like adding the preposition la, to the front of it. • If you add it to a feminine noun already ending in h ', the final h of the noun becomes a t (see the first example below).

  15. Hebrew Adjectives BBIHebrew Grammar I Section 7.6 – Directional Ending (cont.) Ch. 7 vocabulary word  (Definite direct object marker) him you will find thus the city When you enter At‡ao !Waåc.m.Ti !KEå ry[iäh' ~k,äa]boK. to the high place he goes up before to eat lkoªa/l, ht'm'øB'h; hl,’[]y: •~r<j,B. hm'B' = “high place” 1 Sam 9:13

  16. Hebrew Adjectives BBIHebrew Grammar I Section 7.6 – Directional Ending (cont.) to the hill country from there And he moved hr"h'ªh' ~V'ømi qTe’[.Y:w: Gen 12:8

  17. Hebrew Adjectives BBIHebrew Grammar I Section 7.6 – Directional Ending (cont.) a great (Ch. 7) a shout the people And they shouted hl'êAdg> h['äWrT. ‘~['h' W[yrIÜY"w: in its place the wall (fs) And it fell Notice how context tells us this is an attributive adjective. h'yT,ªx.T; hm'øAxh;( lPo’Tiw: And they went up the people to the city ‘hr"y[i’h' ~['Ûh' l[;Y:“w: Joshua 6:20

  18. Hebrew Adjectives BBIHebrew Grammar I Section 7.7 - Summary • Know the “inflectional endings” on page 61 (#1). • Know the three ways adjectives are used (#4, a-c). Know this item exactly and in all details! • Know how the Hebrew directional ending works (#5)

  19. BBIHebrew Grammar I Reminder • After chapter 6, you know 51% of all OT words • After chapter 7, you will know 53% of all OT words • Don’t forget to be doing journal (turn in @ end) • Vocabulary and Grammar Quiz this week. • MIDTERM THIS WEEK. Will cover grammar and vocabulary from chapters 1-6 • No class Oct 15 and Oct 22, but study! Assignments due on Oct 29.