RHYTHM BEAT CADENCE METER
Meter • Patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables • The basic unit of meter is a foot. • Most common feet in English poetry: • Iamb / • Trochee / • Anapest / • Dactyl / • Spondee / /
/ Iambic / / / / I askedmy mo·ther forfif·ty cents / / / x / / To see the el·e·phantjump thefence • / / / / He jumped sohigh, he touched the sky / / / / / And hedidnot come back ‘til theFourth of Ju·ly
Shakespeare’s SONNET 138 When my love swears that she is made of truth I do believe her though I know she lies, That she might think me some untutor’d youth Unlearned in the world’s false subtleties. Thus vainly thinking that she thinks me young, Although she knows my days are past the best, Simply I credit her false speaking tongue: On both sides thus is simple truth suppress’d. But wherefore says she not she is unjust? And wherefore say not I that I am old? O, love’s best habit is in seeming trust, And age in love loves not to have years told: Therefore, I lie with her and she with me And in our faults by lies we flatter’d be.
Trochaic / / / / / / / Pe·ter Pi·per picked a peck ofpick·led pep·pers x / / / / / / If Pe·ter Pi·per picked apeck ofpick·led pep·pers / / / / Where’s thepeck of pick·led pep·pers / / /(iambic) That Pe·ter Pi·per picked?
The Tyger by William BlakeTyger! Tyger! burning bright, In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Could frame thy fearful symmetry? In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire in thine eyes? On what wings dare he aspire? What the hand dare seize the fire? And what shoulder, and what art? Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And whenthy heart began to beat, What dread hand, and what dread feet? What the hammer? What the chain? In what furnace was thy brain? What the anvil? What dread grasp Dare its deadly terrors clasp? When the stars threw down their spears, And watered heaven with their tears, Did he smile his work to see? Did he who made the Lamb, make thee? Tyger! Tyger! burning bright, In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?
Anapestic / / / / There was an old man in a tree • / / / Who was hor·rib·ly bored by abee / / When they said, "Does itbuzz?“ / / He re·plied, "Yes, itdoes! / / / It's a reg·u·lar brute of a bee!" Edward Lear
/ Dactylic (po·e·try) / / / / / / This is the forest prim·eval. The murmuring pines and the hemlocks, / / / / Picture your self in a boat on a river with / / / / tangerine tree-ees and marmaladeskii-ii-es. dactylic hexameter: Longfellow, Evangeline Dactylic tetrameter ¾ time: The Beatles, “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds “
Spondaic / /Rarely an entire line of poetry / / / / See Saw, Margery Daw / / / / I scream. You scream. / / / We all scream for ice cream From the bells, bells, bells, bells,Bells, bells, bells -From the jingling and the tinkling of the bells. -- E.A. Poe
Metrical Lines • One footmonometer • Two feetdimeter • Three feettrimeter • Four feettetrameter • Five feetpentameter (iambic pentameter) • Six feet hexameter (dactylic hexameter) • Seven feetheptameter • Eight feetoctameter
2 line stanzas: couplets 3 line stanzas: tercets triplets:aaa bbb ccc ddd terza rima:aba bcb cdc ded 4 line stanzas: quatrains 5 line stanzas: quintets 6 line stanzas: sestets 7 line stanzas: septets 8 line stanzas: octaves Stanzas
AABAAB The snow came downAnd covered the townThe snow came down last nightThe snow came downAnd covered the townAnd left it snowy _____. Mary had a little jam,she spread it on a waffle.And if she hadn't eaten tenshe wouldn't feel so _____. ABCB Rhyme Scheme The ends of lines repeat the same sounds.
Shakespeare’s SONNET 138 When my love swears that she is made of truth a I do believe her though I know she lies, b That she might think me some untutor’dyouth a Unlearned in the world’s false subtleties. b Thus vainly thinking that she thinks me young, c Although she knows my days are past the best, d Simply I credit her false speaking tongue: c On both sides thus is simple truth suppress’d. d But wherefore says she not she is unjust? e And wherefore say not I that I am old? f O, love’s best habit is in seeming trust, e And age in love loves not to have years told: f Therefore, I lie with her and she with me g And in our faults by lies we flatter’d be. g
Kinds of Rhyme • Exact: eye/sky/pie; sing/ding/ring • Near or Half: sing/dung/rang • Eye: tough/through/dough • Internal: "Ah, distinctly I remember, it was in the bleak December" / / • Masculine: rang/sang / / • Feminine: ringing/singing
Rhyme Patterns Onomatopoeia – words that sound like what they represent Buzz Hiss Roar Woof Tick-tock Alliteration –repetition of sounds Initial: The wild and woolly walrus waits and wonders when we’ll walk by.Internal: baobab; purple potpourriFinal: “Knox in box. Fox in socks. Knox on fox in socks in box. “ – Dr. Suess Assonance – same vowel sounds Fleet feet sweep by sleeping geese Three free throws. Repeated words …and Sky was chasing chasing chasingwith his feet going every which wayand his tailwag-wag-wagging
BELLS by Edgar Allen Poe I.Hear the sledges with the bells - Silver bells!What a world of merriment their melody foretells!How they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle,In the icy air of night!While the stars that oversprinkleAll the heavens seem to twinkleWith a crystalline delight;Keeping time, time, time,In a sort of Runic rhyme,To the tintinnabulation that so musically wellsFrom the bells, bells, bells, bells,Bells, bells, bells - From the jingling and the tinkling of the bells.