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POWER. “A smile and a gun go a lot further than just a smile alone.” Alfonse Capone. POWER V. INFLUENCE. Power - the capacity to produce effects on others. Influence - the change in a target agent’s attitudes, values, beliefs, or behavior as the result of influence tactics.

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POWER

“A smile and a gun go a lot further than just a smile alone.” Alfonse Capone


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POWER V. INFLUENCE

Power - the capacity to produce effects on others.

Influence - the change in a target agent’s attitudes, values, beliefs, or behavior as the result of influence tactics.

Influence tactics - a person’s behaviors designed to change another person’s attitudes, beliefs, values, or behaviors.


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POWER & SYMBOLS

Arrangement of furniture

Symbols

Titles

Clothing


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POWER TAXONOMY

French and Raven

Five sources or bases of power

EXPERT - power of knowledge

REFERRENT - Relationship between the leader and the followers

LEGITIMATE - formal, official authority

REWARD - potential to influence due to control over desired resources

COERCIVE - administration of negative sanctions or removal of positive events.


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POWER TAXONOMY

Four bases stem the person’s position in the organization.

Legitimate

Reward

Coercive

Information


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POWER TAXONOMY

Referent power stems from the person not the organization.

Expert power can also come from the person.

Prestige power – power stemming from one’s status and reputation.


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CONCLUSIONS

Leaders use all 5 bases

Reciprocal influence between effective leaders and followers

Variability re: power sharing

Effective leaders increase their power bases


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NEED FOR POWER

McClelland

Personalized Power - desire power for selfish reasons

Socialized Power - desire power in the service of higher goals

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

Projective personality test

need Achievement

need Power

need Affiliation


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ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

RATIONAL APPROACH

Michael Beer

C = D x M x P > R

C – Change

D – Dissatisfaction

M – Change Model (Vision)

P – Process

R - Resistance


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ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

RATIONAL APPROACH

Dissatisfaction – follower’s level of satisfaction is an important ingredient in leader’s ability to drive change.

Follower’s emotions are fuel for change.


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ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

RATIONAL APPROACH

Model – four components

Environmental scanning

Vision

Identification of needed changes

New goals


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ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

RATIONAL APPROACH

Process – Development and execution of the change plan.

Outline of sequence of events, deliverables, responsibilities, timelines, metrics, and feedback mechanisms.

Inability to execute major reason for executive failure.


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ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

RATIONAL APPROACH

Resistance –

Frustrations caused by expecting too much

Fear of loss – power, relationships, rewards, competence, identity.


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ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

RATIONAL APPROACH

Resistance – SARA Model

Four reactions to change

Shock or Surprise

Anger

Rejection

Acceptance

Top, Middle, First line


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ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

8 Reasons why change efforts succeed

Demonstrate a sense of urgency

Form a strong change coalition

Envision the future and build a strategy

Constantly communicate the vision

Remove barriers & align the organization

Build on early successes

Maintain the pace of change

Put systems in place to reinforce change


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ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

8 Reasons why change efforts fail

Allow too much complacency

Fail to create strong coalition

Underestimate the power of vision

Undercommunicate the vision

Permit obstacles to block the vision

Fail to create short-term wins

Declaring victory too soon

Neglect to anchor changes to the culture


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ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

Charisma

Enthusiasm and passion

Greek word meaning “divinely inspired gift”.

Charisma is a positive and compelling quality of a person that makes many others want to be led by that person.

Charisma is based on perceptions.


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Max Weber

Three types of authority systems

Traditional – birthright

Legal-rational - laws

Charismatic – personal characteristics

Charismatic leaders come from margins in times of great stress and form emotional connections with followers

.


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Charismatic leaders are thought to possess superhuman qualities.

Charismatic leaders must project an image of success.

Charismatic leaders focus society on the problem it faces and on the revolutionary solutions proposed by the leader.

Focus on revolution against the traditional and legal-rational authority systems.


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Key dimension of charismatic leadership is interaction between leader and the people being led.

Leader has exceptional gift for inspiration and non-rational communication.

Followers response is one of awe, reverence, devotion, or emotional dependence.


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Charismatic leaders more than noncharismatic leaders value and pursue the impression that they are trustworthy, credible, morally worthy, innovative, and powerful in the eyes of their followers.

Charismatic leaders more than noncharismatic leaders use impression management strategies of exemplification and promotion to secure and maintain desired image of their selves, their vision, and their organization.


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Burns

Transactional leadership – leaders and followers in exchange relationship. Transitory, legitimates status quo.

Transformational leadership – appeals to values and higher purpose. Changes status quo

Raises standard of conduct. Conflict and change inherent


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Leader Characteristics

Vision – future oriented, perceive fundamental discrepancies, vision to overcome present shortcomings.

Vision is often collaborative. Values serve as moral compass.

Leader’s vision helps followers interpret events and actions in terms of a common perceptual framework.


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Leader Characteristics

Rhetorical skills – gifted ability to share vision.

heighten follower’s emotions

Inspire followers

Metaphors, analogies, stories Not logical argument.


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Leader Characteristics

Image and Trust –

unshakable self-confidence

moral conviction,

personal example,

self-sacrifice,

unconventional tactics or behavior.


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Leader Characteristics

Personalized Leadership –

Strong personal bonds with followers

Sensitive to emotional states of followers

Emotionally expressive (non-verbal behavior)

Empower followers by building self-efficacy


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Follower Characteristics

Charisma is a function of follower reactions.

Charisma is in the eye of the beholder.

Interaction between leader and follower. (Referent)


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Follower Characteristics

Identification

Heightened Emotions

Willing Subordination

Feelings of Empowerment.


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Follower Characteristics

Identification with Leader & Vision –

Strong affection for leader

Sharing of beliefs

See implementation of vision as a solution to their problems.

Need for approval way beyond contract relationship

Charismatic leaders capitalize on dissatisfaction


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Follower Characteristics

Heightened Emotions -

Increased levels of effort and performance

Polarizing effect


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Follower Characteristics

Willing Subordination -

Deference to leader’s authority

Leader can do no wrong

Unquestioned authority


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Follower Characteristics

Feelings of Empowerment –

Capitalize on Pygmalion Effect


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Situational Characteristics

Crises –

Followers who are content see little need for charismatic leader.

Allows leaders to break the rules

Task Interdependence –


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Effects of Charisma (House)

Members’ trust in the correctness of leader beliefs

Similarity of group members’ beliefs to the leader

Unquestioning acceptance of the leader

Affection for the leader

Willing obedience to the leader

Identification with and emulation of the leader

Emotional involvement with the mission


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Effects of Charisma (House)

Heightened goals of the group members

Feeling that group members will be able to accomplish the mission


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Effects of Charisma (House)

Halpert’s factor analysis

Referent Power

Similarity members’ beliefs

Identification

Affection


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Effects of Charisma (House)

Halpert’s factor analysis

Expert Power

Members’ trust

Unquestioning acceptance

Willing obedience


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Effects of Charisma (House)

Halpert’s factor analysis

Job Involvement

Emotional involvement with the mission

Heightened goals of the group members

Feeling that group members will be able to accomplish the mission

Job involvement is a key component of job satisfaction.


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CHARISMA

Developing Charisma

Visioning

Enthusiasm

Persistence

Remember names

Appearance

Candidness


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VISION

A vision statement is more likely to be inspirational when it combines 3 elements:

A reason for being beyond money

Timeless, unchanging core values

Ambitious but achievable goals

Connect with goals of followers


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ENTHUSIASM

Get ample rest

15 minute power naps during day

Exercise

Good diet

Whittle away at ‘to do’ list


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PERSISTENCE

Almost never accept no attitude.

Know when to cut losses.


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REMEMBER NAMES

Really care about people.

Listen carefully, repeat name, study face.


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APPEARANCE

Image consultants

Context important


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CANDIDNESS

Speak directly rather than indirectly.

Evidence that charisma can be learned.


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CHARISMA

www.workstar.net/library/charisma.htm


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PERSUASION

Form of influence

Process of guiding people toward the adoption of some behavior, belief, attitude preferred by the persuader.

Presenting information and

Interacting with another


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PERSUASION

Persuadee

Address motivation

Participation

Reward for change


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PERSUASION

Persuader

Establish credibility

Frame for common ground

Reinforce with logic and reason

Establish an emotional connection


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PERSUASION

Persuader

Establish credibility -

Expertise

Trustworthiness

Composure

Positive Appearance


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PERSUASION

Persuader

Frame for common ground

Provide a perspective

Provide open-minded way to discuss alternatives

Create a logical structure for decisions


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PERSUASION

Persuader

Reinforce with logic and reason

Establish an emotional connection


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PERSUASION

Reardon’s ACE Theory of Persuasion

Appropriateness – the right thing to do

Consistency – degree to which action proposed compares to persuadee/peer behavior

Effectiveness – degree to which leads to desirable end state


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PERSUASION TIPS

Believe in yourself

Sense where your audience is at on an issue and that you understand their position

Know your audience

Balance emotional appeals with reasoning and credibility

Use facts, data, and logic


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PERSUASION TIPS

Put your material in human terms

Use assertive language

Maintain composure

Use props to enhance

Provide reinforcement and follow-through


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PRESENTATION TIPS

BEFORE

Research intended audience – who are they, what do they expect

Determine dress

Prepare remarks

Practice talking points

Relax


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PRESENTATION TIPS

DURING

Begin with an anecdote or quote – attention grabber to focus. No jokes

Give organizing framework

Present core of argument at beginning

Make session interactive

Use technology, but sparingly

Be interesting not necessarily entertaining

Close with a compelling thought or quote


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PRESENTATION TIPS

AFTER

Evaluate

Follow-up


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PERSUASION TIPS

STAGE FRIGHT

Prepare

Visit the site

Visualize success

Maintain realistic expectations

Gain experience

Talk about something that interests you

Develop relaxation routine

Use visual aids

Use gestures


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NETWORKING

The building and nurturing of personal and professional relationships.

Creates a chain of information, contacts, and support.


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NETWORKING

Building

Organize current network

Use web

Join civic organizations

Let others know your goals

Ask how you can help

Do something everyday to expand network

Always exchange business cards

Keep in touch


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NETWORKING

Building

Organize current network

Use web

Join civic organizations

Let others know your goals

Ask how you can help

Do something everyday to expand network

Always exchange business cards

Keep in touch