2 2 integrating climate change into forestry mitigation n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
2.2. Integrating climate change into forestry: Mitigation PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
2.2. Integrating climate change into forestry: Mitigation

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 26

2.2. Integrating climate change into forestry: Mitigation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 173 Views
  • Uploaded on

2.2. Integrating climate change into forestry: Mitigation. Bruno Locatelli, CIRAD-CIFOR. Objectives. To explain the contribution of forests to climate change mitigation To present which forest activities contribute to mitigate climate change To explain why and how to do carbon accounting.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '2.2. Integrating climate change into forestry: Mitigation' - ryo


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
objectives
Objectives
  • To explain the contribution of forests to climate change mitigation
  • To present which forest activities contribute to mitigate climate change
  • To explain why and how to do carbon accounting
slide3
Discussion:
  • How do you understand the following concepts?
    • Carbon
    • Carbon dioxide
    • Carbon flux
    • Carbon sources
    • Carbon emission
    • Carbon sinks
    • Carbon absorption
    • Carbon removal
    • Carbon stock
    • Carbon storage
    • Carbon sequestration
  • What is the difference between adaptation and mitigation if forestry?
outline
Outline
  • Forests and carbon at the global scale
  • Forests and carbon at the ecosystem scale
  • Forest activities that mitigate climate change
  • Why and how to do carbon accounting
1 forests and carbon at the global scale

2.6

2.2

1.6

Residualland sink

Ocean

uptake

Deforestation

1. Forests and carbon at the global scale

Atmospheric

increase

4.1

GtC/year

7.2

Fossil carbonemissions

what is a ton of co 2
What is a ton of CO2?
  • Examples from daily life footprint:
    • Flying round-trip from New York to Los Angeles =0.9 tCO2/person
    • Driving an average car in the US = 5.4 tCO2/year
    • Living in a detached family home with 4 bedrooms
      • In California = 20 tCO2/yr/family
      • In Michigan = 51 tCO2/yr/family
  • National averages:
    • One person in the US = 25 tCO2/yr
    • One person in India = 1 tCO2/yr

www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/ind_calculator.html

www.nature.org/initiatives/climatechange/calculator/

historical forest carbon balance mtco2 per region 1855 2000
Historical forest carbon balance (MtCO2) per region, 1855-2000

Source: IPCC FAR 2007, Houghton 2003

Red= sources, Green=sinks

2 forests and carbon at the ecosystem scale

Leaves

Branches

Trunks

Understory

Dead wood and litter

Soils

Roots

2. Forests and carbon at the ecosystem scale

Stocks

A forest = carbon stocks

E.g.: 1 kg of dry wood ≈ 0.5 kg of carbon

stocks examples

Leaves

Branches

Trunks

Understory

Dead woodand litter

Soils

Roots

Stocks: Examples
  • Tropical wet forest (IPCC, 2003):
  • Aboveground biomass: 65 to 430 tC/ha
  • Soils: 44 to 130 tC/ha

Aboveground biomass stocks in tropical forests(t dry matter/ha = 2 x tC/ha)

(IPCC, 2003)

fluxes

Atmospheric CO2

∑= Net Absorption Flux

Products

Fluxes

A forest = a set of carbon fluxes

A forest = carbon fluxes with the atmosphere

Atmospheric CO2

Photosynthesis

Respiration

Mineralization

Mortality

Products

Humification

fluxes examples

30.4

Atmosphere

5.9

4.1

Atmosphere

3.9

7.0

6,8

9.7

13.7

6.3

Fluxes: Examples

Estimated annual total carbon flows (tC/ha/yr) in a tropical rainforest stand near Manaus, Amazonia, Brazil (IPCC, 2000)

links between stock and flux
Links between stock and flux

If stock increases….

Flux: Inbound

Atmospheric CO2: Decreasing (less CC)Process: Carbon fixation or removalForest: Carbon sinkExample: Growing forest

links between stock and flux1
Links between stock and flux

If stock decreases…

Flux: Outbound

Atmospheric CO2: Increasing (more CC)Process: Carbon emissionForest: Carbon sourceExample: Decaying or burning forest

links between stock and flux examples
Links between stock and flux: Examples

Year 7 : Stock =135 tC/ha

Year 0 :Stock =30 tC/ha

Mean absorption flux =

(135-30) / (7-0) = 15 tC/ha/yr

slide15

Quiz

Which figure represents the simplified evolution of carbon in the following cases?

Carbon

Carbon

A non forestedland

A forest conversion to non forested land use

A forest unsustainably managed

A plantation harvested regularly

A forest converted to a plantation

A conserved primary forest

1

4

Years

Years

Carbon

Carbon

2

5

Years

Years

Carbon

Carbon

3

6

Years

Years

slide16

Answer: B

Additional stored carbon in alternative B compared to A = carbon that does not contribute to climate change

Carbon

Years

Comparing scenarios

  • For climate change mitigation, which is the best alternative?
  • A pasture (A)
  • A forest plantation, even destroyed or burnt regularly (B)?

Carbon

Carbon

A

B

Years

Years

undisturbed forests
Undisturbed Forests
  • An undisturbed forest:
    • A large stock
    • But not a large sink
      • +/- equilibrium (climax)
      • Scientific debate on this point
        • Measurement: sinks (CO2 fertilization, recuperation from past disturbances, spatial sampling)
    • Even if an undisturbed forest does not contribute to absorb GhG from the atmosphere, it is better conserving it than converting it to other uses
      • See next slide

Carbon

Years

slide18

Answer: A

Carbon emitted to the atmosphere underscenario B compared to A

= Carbon that contributes to climate change

Carbon

Years

Comparing scenarios

  • For climate change mitigation, which is the best alternative?
  • Conserving an undisturbed forest (A)
  • Converting this forest to forest plantation (B)?

B

A

Carbon

Carbon

Years

Years

forest products

CO2

CO2

Wood

Energy

CO2

Energy

ForestProducts
  • Forest products can substitute for:
    • Other material (steel, aluminum…) whose production emits a lot of GhG
    • Other energy (oil, coal, gas…)
  • Fuelwood:
    • Low CO2 balanceif harvesting is sustainableand yield is high
    • Better than fossil fuel balance
how can forest sector mitigate cc

reducing emissions caused by forest activities

Less energy, oil, fertilizers...

How can forest sector mitigate CC?

(It is NOT a political definition)

  • increasing carbon stocks

Creating

plantations

Carbon

Project

Benefit

Developing

agroforestry

Forest

Baseline

Years

  • avoiding losses of carbon stocks

Carbon

With conservation

Reducingdeforestation

Benefit

Baseline

(Deforestation)

Years

Energy

  • producing biomaterials and bioenergy
4 why and how to do carbon accounting
4. Why and how to do carbon accounting?

Why?

  • For demonstrating the impacts of a forestry program on mitigation
    • E.g. USAID-funded programs which contribute to the Global Climate Change Earmark
  • For national accounting (GhG reporting and national communications)
  • For selling carbon credits (for projects under the CDM or voluntary markets)
  • For helping forest managers to consider carbon in their activities
  • For improving stakeholders understanding of the role of forests in mitigation
why and how to do carbon accounting
Why and how to do carbon accounting?

How?

  • Different level of efforts and precision
  • On-site measurement (existing forests)
    • Direct measurement
      • Dry matter weight and carbon content
        • litter, dead wood…
      • Tree destructive sampling
    • Indirect measurement
      • Tree diameters and heights
        • Allometric equations
  • Modeling (existing or projected forests)
  • Remote sensing
    • Combined with “ground truthing”
  • Default factors

See presentations on Carbon Accounting

See IPCC Good Practice Guidance for

LULUCF

usaid winrock forest carbon calculator
USAID/WinrockForest Carbon Calculator
  • Combines global datasets on carbon biomass, deforestation, tree growth rates, impacts of forest management
  • Forest protection, reforestation/afforestation, forest management, agroforestry
  • Not full IPCC Tier 3 analysis, but better than Tier 2 in many cases
  • Simple way to quickly estimate CO2 benefits of projects
  • Available on-line at: http://winrock.stage.datarg.net
examples of tools for carbon accounting
Examples of tools for carbon accounting

See http://www.efi.int/projects/casfor/

(Vallejo A., 2005. SSAFR and SIAGEF joint meeting . September 2005, Sao Paulo, Brazil)

references
References
  • Brown, S. 1997 Estimating biomass and biomass change of tropical forests. A primer. FAO Forestry Paper no. 137. Rome, IT. 55p.
  • Brown, S. 1999 Guidelines for Inventorying and Monitoring Carbon Offsets in Forest-Based Projects. Winrock International. 14p.
  • Brown, S. 2002a Measuring carbon in forests: current status and future challenges. Environmental Pollution 116: 363-372. http://www.winrock.org/ecosystems/files/2002ForestCarbon.pdf
  • Brown, S. 2002b Measuring, monitoring, and verification of carbon benefits for forest-based projects. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society London A 360: 1669-1683. http://www.winrock.org/ecosystems
  • Brown, S. and Gaston, G. 1995 Use of Forest Inventories and Geographic Information Systems to Estimate Biomass Density of Tropical Forests: Application to Tropical Africa.Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 38: 157-168. http://www.winrock.org/ecosystems
  • CO2FIX V3.1 Manual. http://www.efi.int/projects/casfor/downloads/co2fix3_1_manual.pdf
  • IPCC. 2003 Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (GPG LULUCF). http://www.ipccnggip.iges.or.jp/public/gpglulucf
  • MacDicken. 1997 A Guide to Monitoring Carbon Storage in Forestry and Agroforestry Projects. Winrock.
  • Masera et al. 2003 Modelling carbon sequestration in afforestation, agroforestry and forest management projects: the CO2FIX V.2 approach. Ecological modelling 164:177-199.