02 Truth and Rationality

# 02 Truth and Rationality

## 02 Truth and Rationality

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1. 02 Truth and Rationality Philosophy

2. Consider the following two sentences: (1) “snow is white” (2) “snow is white” Are these the same sentence? 3

3. Consider the following two sentences: (1) “snow is white” (2) “snow is white” Are these the same sentence? Yes and No. 4

4. Consider the following two sentences: (1) “snow is white” (2) “snow is white” They are different “tokens” of the same sentence “type”. 5

5. Consider the following two sentences: (1) “snow is white” (2) “snow is white” They are different “tokens” of the same sentence “type”. They are two different physical instances of the same one abstract pattern of symbols. 6

6. The distinction between a type and its tokens is a metaphysical distinction between a single abstract thing and its many concrete and particular instances. 7

7. The distinction between a type and its tokens is a metaphysical distinction between a single abstract thing and its many concrete and particular instances. Tokens are individual physical things that exist at a time and place and are composed of thinks like ink, chalk, vibrations in sound, and so on. . 8

8. The distinction between a type and its tokens is a metaphysical distinction between a single abstract thing and its many concrete and particular instances. Tokens are individual physical things that exist at a time and place and are composed of thinks like ink, chalk, vibrations in sound, and so on. Types aren't composed of anything. They are not physical nor do they exist in time. They are abstract. 9

9. EXAMPLE: The number of words in the Gertrude Stein line from her poem Sacred Emily: 10

10. EXAMPLE: The number of words in the Gertrude Stein line from her poem Sacred Emily: Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose. 11

11. EXAMPLE: The number of words in the Gertrude Stein line from her poem Sacred Emily: Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose. In one sense of ‘word’ we may count three different words; in another sense we may count ten different words. 12

12. EXAMPLE: The number of words in the Gertrude Stein line from her poem Sacred Emily: Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose. In one sense of ‘word’ we may count three different words; in another sense we may count ten different words. Three different types, ten different tokens. 13

13. Consider the following two sentences: (1) “snow is white” (2) “neigh est blanc” Are these the same sentence? 14

14. Consider the following two sentences: (1) “snow is white” (2) “neigh est blanc” They are different sentence tokens and types. However, they do have something in common. 15

15. Consider the following two sentences: (1) “snow is white” (2) “neigh est blanc” They are different sentence tokens and types. However, they do have something in common. They share the same “meaning”. 16

16. Consider the following two sentences: (1) “snow is white” (2) “neigh est blanc” They are different sentence tokens and types. However, they do have something in common. They share the same “meaning” (a.k.a. They express the same “proposition”). 17

17. The distinction between a sentence and its meaning is a distinction between the proposition someone is expressing and the mere physical sentence token they are using to express it. 18

18. The distinction between a sentence and its meaning is a distinction between the proposition someone is expressing and the mere physical sentence token they are using to express it. Sentences are individual physical things (sentence tokens) that are instances of a certain language's pattern (sentence types). 19

19. The distinction between a sentence and its meaning is a distinction between the proposition someone is expressing and the mere physical sentence token they are using to express it. Sentences are individual physical things (sentence tokens) that are instances of a certain language's pattern (sentence types). Propositions aren't composed of anything nor are they in any language. They are not physical nor do they exist in time. They are abstract. Propositions don't have tokens, but they can be “expressed” by sentence tokens. 20

20. Consider the following sentences: (1) “Jane is taller than Ann.” (2) “Jane is taller than Ann.” (3) “Ann is shorter than Jane.” (4) “Jane est plus grand que Ann.” 21

21. Consider the following sentences: (1) “Jane is taller than Ann.” (2) “Jane is taller than Ann.” (3) “Ann is shorter than Jane.” (4) “Jane est plus grand que Ann.” How many sentence tokens? How many sentence types? How many propositions are expressed? 22

22. Consider the following sentences: (1) “Jane is taller than Ann.” (2) “Jane is taller than Ann.” (3) “Ann is shorter than Jane.” (4) “Jane est plus grand que Ann.” How many sentence tokens? Four. How many sentence types? Three. How many propositions are expressed? One. 23

23. Consider the following sentences: (1) “I am hungry.” (2) “I am hungry.” (3) “He is hungry.” 24

24. Consider the following sentences: (1) “I am hungry.” (2) “I am hungry.” (3) “He is hungry.” How many sentence tokens? Three. How many sentence types? Two. How many propositions are expressed? ??? 25

25. Sentence types do not literally express propositions (i.e. sentence types do not have meanings). 26

26. Sentence types do not literally express propositions (i.e. sentence types do not have meanings). Only sentence tokens express propositions (i.e. have meanings). 27

27. Consider the following sentences: (1) “I am hungry.” (2) “I am hungry.” (3) “He is hungry.” How many sentence tokens? Three. How many sentence types? Two. How many propositions are expressed? ??? 28

28. Consider the following sentences: (1) “I am hungry.” (2) “I am hungry.” (3) “He is hungry.” How many sentence tokens? Three. How many sentence types? Two. How many propositions are expressed? ??? To know the propositions expressed we need the “context” of each of the three sentence tokens. 29

29. Consider the following sentences: (1) “I am hungry.” (2) “I am hungry.” (3) “He is hungry.” 30

30. Consider the following sentences: (1) “I am hungry.” (2) “I am hungry.” (3) “He is hungry.” It is only from the context in which each of the three sentence tokens occurred that we can determine who is being said to be hungry and when it is being claimed that they are hungry. 31

31. Consider the following sentences: (1) “I am hungry.” (2) “I am hungry.” (3) “He is hungry.” 32

32. Consider the following sentences: (1) “I am hungry.” (2) “I am hungry.” (3) “He is hungry.” Can you imagine a context for these three sentence tokens such that they all express the same proposition? What about a context where they all express different propositions? 33

33. What feature of the context in which the following sentences are said could help you determine what proposition they express? 34

34. What feature of the context in which the following sentences are said could help you determine what proposition they express? (a) “I am sleepy.” (b) “You will not be here tomorrow.” (c) “It is sunny today.” (d) “We will not tolerate any more of your abuse.” (e) “Tiffany will be here by noon.” (d) “No.” 35

35. Consider the following sentences: (1) “Jane is taller than Ann.” (2) “Jane is taller than Ann.” (3) “Ann is shorter than Jane.” (4) “Jane est plus grand que Ann.” How many sentence tokens? How many sentence types? How many propositions are expressed? 36

36. Consider the following sentences: (1) “Jane is taller than Ann.” (2) “Jane is taller than Ann.” (3) “Ann is shorter than Jane.” (4) “Jane est plus grand que Ann.” How many sentence tokens? Four. How many sentence types? Three. How many propositions are expressed? ??? 37

37. Terminology - Type / Token - Sentence - Proposition - Meaning - Context 38

38. 39

39. Part I: Sentences and Propositions Part II: Propositional Attitudes 40

40. Sentence tokens express propositions, but sentence tokens aren't the only thing that involve propositions (a.k.a. meanings). 41

41. Sentence tokens express propositions, but sentence tokens aren't the only thing that involve propositions (a.k.a. meanings). We can also hope that a proposition is true, wish that a proposition were true, believe a proposition is true, wonder if a proposition is true, imagine a proposition is true, etc. 42

42. Belief, wondering, imagining, hoping, wishing, etc. are all examples of “mental states” that are called “propositional attitudes”. That is, they are mental states about a proposition. 43

43. Belief, wondering, imagining, hoping, wishing, etc. are all examples of “mental states” that are called “propositional attitudes”. That is, they are mental states about a proposition. By contrast feeling pain, seeing red, hearing a high pitched sound, etc. are all mental states that aren't about propositions. They are not propositional attitudes. 44

44. EXAMPLE: Experiencing the feeling of pain after being stabbed and wishing that I hadn't been stabbed. 45

45. EXAMPLE: Experiencing the feeling of pain after being stabbed and wishing that I hadn't been stabbed. Both are mental states. But the feeling of pain from the stabbing isn't about a proposition while the wish is about the proposition “I've been stabbed.” 46

46. EXAMPLE: Experiencing the feeling of pain after being stabbed and wishing that I hadn't been stabbed. Both are mental states. But the feeling of pain from the stabbing isn't about a proposition while the wish is about the proposition “I've been stabbed.” Pain is just a feeling/experience, but a wish is always a wish about a proposition. When I wish, I always that a proposition. But I don't pain that a proposition. 47

47. At this point we know that a belief is (1) a mental state, and (2) a propositional attitude. 48

48. At this point we know that a belief is (1) a mental state, and (2) a propositional attitude. So, like wishing and experiencing pain, belief is a mental state. Unlike pain but similar to a wish, a belief is a propositional attitude. That is, like a wish, a belief is about a proposition. 49

49. So what is unique about the mental state/propositional attitude of belief? How does belief differ from other mental states/propositional attitudes like wishing, imagining, wondering, hoping, and so on? 50