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Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice. Chapter Review Menu. Igneous rocks form from molten rock that cools and crystallizes.

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Presentation Transcript
chapter review menu

Key Concept Summary

Interactive Concept Map

Chapter Review

Standardized Test Practice

Chapter Review Menu
the big idea
Igneous rocks form from molten rock that cools and crystallizes.
  • Sedimentary rocks form from compaction and cementation of sediments or evaporation and crystallization of minerals dissolved in water.
  • Metamorphic rocks form from exposure of existing rocks to high pressures, temperatures, or the addition of chemical fluids.
The BIG Idea
key concepts 1

Lesson 1: Rocks and the Rock Cycle

  • There are three major rock types—igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Geologists study rock texture and mineral composition to identify rocks of each type.
  • Rocks can melt or recrystallize. Rocks exposed on Earth’s surface can break down due to forces such as water, ice, wind, and gravity. New rocks form under changing temperature and pressure conditions or the addition of chemical fluids.

Nancy Simmerman/Getty Images

Key Concepts 1
key concepts 2

Lesson 2: Igneous Rocks

  • Igneous rocks form when volcanic material cools and crystallizes.
  • Crystal size is dependent on how quickly the magma or lava cools.
  • Igneous rocks range in color from light to dark, depending on their mineral composition.
Key Concepts 2
key concepts 3

Lesson 3: Sedimentary Rocks

  • Weathering, erosion, transportation, deposition, compaction, cementation, and crystallization are the important processes in the formation of sedimentary rocks.
  • A sedimentary rock’s texture and mineral composition depends on where it formed and the forces that created it.

National Geographic/Getty Images

Key Concepts 3
key concepts 4

Lesson 4: Metamorphic Rocks

  • Metamorphic rocks form from a parent rock that has been exposed to increases in temperature, pressure, or the addition of chemical fluids.
  • Some metamorphic rocks have foliated textures and are deformed. Others are composed of coarse and blocky crystals that are uniform in color.
Key Concepts 4
chapter review mc1

Which term refers to the series of processes that change one type of rock into another type of rock?

A. metamorphoses

B. sediment deposit

C. rock cycle

D. rock deposit

Chapter Review – MC1
chapter review mc2

Geologists can determine if an igneous rock is extrusive or intrusive by studying its composition and which of these?

A. size C. weight

B. color D. texture

Chapter Review – MC2
chapter review mc3

Which type of rock is sedimentary rock that was formed by organisms or contains the remains of organisms?

A. chemical C. carbonate

B. biochemical D. clastic

Chapter Review – MC3
chapter review mc4

Which process occurs when minerals dissolved in water crystallize between sediment grains?

A. cementation

B. compaction

C. crystallization

D. erosion

Chapter Review – MC4
chapter review mc5

Which type of rocks contain parallel layers of flat and elongated minerals?

A. igneous

B. foliated

C. nonfoliated

D. sedimentary

Chapter Review – MC5
chapter review stp2

When magma or lava cools and crystallizes, it creates which type of rock?

A. igneous

B. sedimentary

C. metamorphic

D. mineral

Chapter Review – STP2
chapter review stp3

An igneous rock is classified as extrusive if which part is difficult or impossible to see without a magnifying glass?

A. minerals

B. crystals

C. holes

D. grains

Chapter Review – STP3
chapter review stp4

Which term refers to any process that affects the structure or composition of solid rock?

A. chemical reaction

B. plastic deformation

C. foliation

D. metamorphism

Chapter Review – STP4
chapter review stp5

Which process refers to the formation of metamorphic rock bodies that are hundreds of square kilometers in size?

A. cementation

B. regional metamorphism

C. contact metamorphism

D. plastic deformation

Chapter Review – STP5