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Progression Toward Statehood. Articles of Confederation Era. Land Ordinance of 1785 Land divided into “sections” General idea of 160 acres. Articles of Confederation Era. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Process for statehood Region organized as “territory”

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articles of confederation era
Articles of Confederation Era
  • Land Ordinance of 1785
    • Land divided into “sections”
    • General idea of 160 acres
articles of confederation era1
Articles of Confederation Era
  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787
    • Process for statehood
    • Region organized as “territory”
    • Apply for statehood once “territory” has 60,000 people & a constitution
creation of indian territory
Creation of Indian Territory
  • Removal gives region population
  • “Territory” but not considered for statehood
homestead act of 1862
Homestead Act of 1862
  • “Free” 160 acres if you live on & improve land for 5 years
  • Encourages white migration/settlement of the West
post civil war era
Post-Civil War Era
  • Five Tribes lost land due to war
  • 30 more tribes moved in to Indian Territory
  • Not considered for statehood
  • “Unassigned Lands” in center becomes attractive to whites
dawes act of 1887
Dawes Act of 1887
  • Allotments in severalty
  • Each tribe member gets a specific amount of land in acres
  • Ends “reservations” in Indian Territory
  • U.S. gov’t can buy remaining land
  • Backed by Curtis Act of 1898
resistance
Resistance
  • Some tribes tried to ignore it. Did not read mail.
  • Crazy Snake Rebellion: Creek, Chitto Harjo and others attacked those Indians who accepted allotments, feds ended it
  • Keetoowah: Cherokee, wanted to hold land in common
land openings
Land Openings
  • Elias C. Boudinot (Cherokee): encourages Five Tribes to sell unused land to U.S. gov’t
  • Boomers:
    • David L. Payne attempts to colonize Unassigned Lands
    • William Couch & his group forced out due to a military blockade
land openings1
Land Openings
  • Springer Amendment
  • April 22, 1889: Unassigned Lands
  • “Harrison’s Hoss Race”
  • Could claim 160 acres in race if:
    • 21 year old male
    • 21 year old completely single female
    • Cannot already own 160+ acres
land openings2
Land Openings
  • Sooners: sneak across line early & make illegal claims
    • Make sure and know difference between Boomers and Sooners
  • Violence often broke out
    • William Couch was shot/killed
land openings3
Land Openings
  • Sept. 22, 1891: Sac & Fox, Pottawatomie, Iowa, & Shawnee
  • April 19, 1892: Cheyenne-Arapaho
    • Jockey/race horse
    • Hot air balloon
    • Horse drawn buses
  • Still problems with Sooners
land openings4
Land Openings
  • Sept. 16, 1893: Cherokee Outlet
    • Pre-race registration hopes to limit Sooners—actually more in this race
    • William Prettyman photographed race (see examples)
  • May 3, 1895: Kickapoo lands
    • Last race
    • Only 80 acre plots
land openings5
Land Openings
  • 1896, Supreme Court rules Greer County isn’t Texas & opens the land—Adams-Onis Treaty used
  • 1901: Lottery used to open Kiowa-Comanche and Wichita lands
    • Big Pasture & Wood Reserve are not open but will be auctioned off in 1906
white settlers hardships
White Settlers’ Hardships
  • No official law—fear of Indian attack
  • New homes: Dugouts (most common) & soddies
  • Unwelcome visitors: insects, snakes, & other vermin
  • Cold winters & Hot summers
  • Towns
twin territories
Twin Territories
  • Whites in Western Indian Territory gain permission to seek statehood & create “Oklahoma Territory”—only western half---Organic Act 1890
  • E.P. McCabe attempts to make OK a black state (Langston city & univ.)
  • Indian Territory attempts to create State of Sequoyah—Congress says NO
first territorial government
First Territorial Government
  • George W. Steele of Indiana=1st territorial governor
  • “Carpetbagging”
  • Schools: public schools, Counties had discretion on segregation, University at Norman (OU), A & M college at Stillwater (OSU), and normal school at Edmond (UCO)
  • Guthrie was territorial capital
cherokee commission
Cherokee Commission
  • Jerome Commission
  • Land allotments to western tribes, ended reservations
  • More land openings
territorial governors
Territorial Governors
  • Steele resigned after a year.
  • William Renfrow was only Democrat---two more schools at Alva and Langston
  • Barnes---two mores schools at Tonkawa and Weatherford
  • Jenkins---removed from office by T. Roosevelt
  • T.B. Ferguson---newspaper in Watonga
  • Frank Frantz---last, led us into statehood
only one new state
Only ONE New State
  • OK Enabling Act, 1906: OT & IT merged to create one new state
  • Indians would become citizens of new state
  • Constitutional Convention in Guthrie
    • William H. Murray as president
    • 99 Democrats, 12 Republicans, 1 Indep.
oklahoma s constitution
Oklahoma’s Constitution
  • Viewed as most “progressive”
    • Initiative
    • Referendum
    • Female suffrage in school elections
    • 8 hour work day (miners & gov’t workers)
    • OK will be a “dry” state
  • Jim Crow laws added to restrict rights of blacks
the 46 th star
The 46th Star
  • Sept 17, 1907: people vote on Constitution & new officials
  • Pres. Theodore Roosevelt “reluctantly” approves constitution on Nov 16, 1907
  • Mock wedding in Guthrie of Indian & white shows union of Twin Territories
  • 1st Governor: Charles N. Haskell
  • Capital: Guthrie
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